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26 terms

Unit 3 - Chapter 2 - Cell Membranes & Organelles

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Diffusion
Movement of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration
Osmosis
Movement of water across a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
Facilitated diffusion
Passive movement across a membrane that requires specific carrier molecules.
Carrier mediated transport
Proteins embedded in cell membranes that assist transport across the membrane.
Pinocytosis
Bulk transport of fluids across a cell membrane.
Exocytosis
Movement of substances across the membrane, out of a cell.
Endocytosis
Bulk transport of substances across a membrane, into a cell.
Phagocytosis
Solids that are engulfed by a vacuole.
Nucleus
The control centre of the cell containing DNA, where the genetic information is stored.
Mitochondria
A double membrane-bound organelle where respiration occurs.
Golgi apparatus
Membrane bound organelle where proteins are packaged and exported.
Lysosome
A membrane bound organelle in cells containing digestive enzymes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
A membrane-bound organelle with ribosomes which transports
Chloroplast
Organelle in plant cells containing chlorophyll where photosynthesis occurs.
Aerobic respiration
Respiration requiring oxygen; occurring in mitochondria.
Anaerobic respiration
Respiration without oxygen.
Cytoskeleton
...
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate molecule that stores energy.
ADP
Adenosine diphosphate molecule, product of energy release.
Stroma
Liquid medium of a chloroplast.
Thylakoid
Part of a chloroplast
Granum
Stack of thykaloids - part of a chloroplast.
Channel mediated
a protein makes a tunnel in membrane and ions move across the channels from high concentration to low concentration
Isotonic solution
Same concentration inside and outside the cell
Hypotonic solution
Solution has a lower concentration of salts/sugars, so water tends to move into the cell, causing an increase in size and mass.
Hypertonic solution
The solution has a greater concentration of salts/sugars, so water tends to move out of the cell, causing it to lose mass and shrivel.