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56 terms

Chapter 15

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Hyperthermia
an extremely high fever.
Sphygmomanometer
The force of blood against the walls of the arteries (blood pressure) is measured using what?
Auscultation
listening for sounds within the body and is usually performed through a stethoscope.
Rale
an abnormal rattle or crackle like respiratory sound during inspiration (breathing in).
Rhonchus
an abnormal sound heard while listening to the chest during inspiration, expiration or both.
Stridor
an abnormal high-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation. is the result of a partial blockage of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea.
Bruit
an abnormal sound heard during ascultation of an artery. These sounds are usually due to a partially blocked, narrowed, or diseased artery. These sounds also produced by the blood flowing through a graft, fistula, or shunt.
Palpation
an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts.
Percussion
a diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers.
Ophthalmoscope
an instrument used to examine the interior of the eye.
Otoscope
an instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane.
Speculum
an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior.
Prone Position
the patient is lying on the belly with face down. The arms may be placed under the head for comfort. The position is used for the examination and treatment of the back and buttocks.
Horizontal Recumbent Position
the patient is lying on the back with the face up. This position is used for examination and treatment of the anterior surface of the body and for x-rays.
Dorsal Recumbent Position
the patient is lying on the back with knees bent. This position is used for th examination and treatment of the abdominal area and for vaginal or rectal examinations.
Sims' Position
the patient is lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back. This position is used in the examination and treatment of the rectal area.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
a test based on the speed at which the red blood cells seperate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container. An elevated sed rate indicates the presence of inflammation in the body.
Hematocrit
describes the percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red cells. This test is used to diagnose abnormal states of hydration, polycythemia, and anemia.
Platelet Count
measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function. It is also used to monitor changes in the blood associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These changes include thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia.
Red Blood Cell Count
a determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood. A depressed count can indicate anemia or a hemorrhage lating more than 24 hours.
Total Hemoglobin Test
usually part of a complete blood count. Elevated Hg levels indicate a higher than normal hemoglobin concentration in the plasma due to polycythemia or dehydration. Low Hg levels indicates lower than normal hemoglobin concentration due to anemia, recent hemorrhage, or fluid retention.
Blood Urea Nitrogen Test
measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to waste product urea. This test is performed to obtain an indication of kidney function.
Specific Gravity
reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present in urine.
Acetone
has a sweet, fruity odor, is found in small quantities in normal urine and in larger amounts in the urine of a diabetic.
Albuminuria
the presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is a sign of impaired kidney function.
Calciuria
the presence of calcium in the urine. Abnormally high levels can be diagnostic for hyperparathyroidism. Lower than normal levels can indicate osteomalacia.
Glycosuria
is the presence of glucose in the urine, is most commonly caused by diabetes.
Hematuria
the presence of blood in the urine. This condition can be caused by kidney stones, infection, damage to the kidney, or bladder cancer.
Abdominocentesis
the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid.
Cardiocentesis
the puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy.
Pericardiocentesis
the puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid.
Tympanocentesis
the surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected the middle ear.
Radiopaque Contrast Medium
the substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film.
Radiolucent Contrast Medium
the substance such as air or nitrogen gas does allow x-rays to pass through and appears black or dark gray on the resulting film.
Anteroposterior Projection
the patient positioned with the back parallel to the film. The x-ray beam travels from anterior to posterior.
Posteroanterior Projection
the patient positioned facing the film and parellel to it. The x-ray beam travels through the body from posterior to anterior.
Lateral Projection
the patient positioned at right angles to the film. This veiw is named for the side of the body nearest the film.
Oblique Projection
the patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film. This is halfway between a parallel and a right angle position.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create signals that are sent to a computer and converted into images of any plane through the body.
Magnetic Resonance Anigography (MRA)
combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to located problems within blood vessels throughout the body.
Nuclear Medicine
radioactive substances known as radiopharmaceuticals are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes.
Radiopharmaceuticals
are administered for either diagnositc or treatment purposes.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging)
combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas.
Adverse Drug Reaction
an undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken.
Idiosyncratic Reaction
an unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual.
Palliative
a substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it.
Paradoxical Reaction
the result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results.
Placebo
an inactive substance, such as a sugar pill or liquid, that is administered only for its suggestive effects. In medical research, a placebo is administered to one group and the drug being studied is administered to another group.
Analgesic
refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness. These include such drugs as aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.
Acetaminophen
an analgesic that reduces pain and fever, but does not relieve inflammation; however it does not have the negative side effects of NSAIDS.
Ibuprofen
an nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medicine that is sold over the counter under the brand names of Advil and Motrin. This medication acts as an analgesic to relieve pain of the arthritis.
Rectal Suppository
medication in a semisolid form that is introduced into the rectum. The suppository melts at body tempurature, and the medication is absorbed through the surrounding tissues.
Sublingual Administration
the placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly.
Topical Application
a liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated.
Transdermal Medication
administered form a patch that is applied to unbroken skin.
Hypodermic Syringe
the most common use of parental administration by injection.