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the authority a court has to hear and decide a case

common law

customary law that develops from judges' decision and is followed in situations not covered by existing law

criminal law

laws that define what acts are crimes


to ask a higher court to review a case


earlier court decisions that guides judges' decisions in later cases

judicial review

power of the Supreme Court to determine whether a law passed by Congress or presidential action is constitutional

constitutional review

law based on the constitution and on Supreme Court decisions interpreting the Constitution


judges of the Supreme Court


return a case to a lower court for a new trial

civil law

laws the refer to disputes between people

original jurisdiction

authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts

appellate jurisdiction

authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts


one of 12 judicial districts covered by a court of appeals


written statement by the US Supreme Court explaining its reasoning behind a particular decision

equal justice for all

What is the goal of the US Supreme Court?


What document guarantees Americans the right to a fair trial?

Plessy v. Ferguson

In which case did the Supreme Court make its famous "separate but equal" ruling?


What courts have original jurisdiction in most federal cases?


people that serve on a jury

Thurgood Marshall

Who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court?

Marbury v. Madison

Which Supreme Court case established the principle of judicial review?

Brown v. Board of Education

Which court case reversed Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled segregation unconstitutional?

Miranda v. Arizona

Which Supreme Court case required that police inform the accused of their rights before questioned?

administrative law

laws established by government agencies

panel of at least three judges

How are decisions made in a court of appeals?

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