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25 terms

Judiciary Branch

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jurisdiction
the authority a court has to hear and decide a case
common law
customary law that develops from judges' decision and is followed in situations not covered by existing law
criminal law
laws that define what acts are crimes
appeal
to ask a higher court to review a case
precedent
earlier court decisions that guides judges' decisions in later cases
judicial review
power of the Supreme Court to determine whether a law passed by Congress or presidential action is constitutional
constitutional review
law based on the constitution and on Supreme Court decisions interpreting the Constitution
justices
judges of the Supreme Court
remand
return a case to a lower court for a new trial
civil law
laws the refer to disputes between people
original jurisdiction
authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
appellate jurisdiction
authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
circuit
one of 12 judicial districts covered by a court of appeals
opinion
written statement by the US Supreme Court explaining its reasoning behind a particular decision
equal justice for all
What is the goal of the US Supreme Court?
Constitution
What document guarantees Americans the right to a fair trial?
Plessy v. Ferguson
In which case did the Supreme Court make its famous "separate but equal" ruling?
district
What courts have original jurisdiction in most federal cases?
jurors
people that serve on a jury
Thurgood Marshall
Who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court?
Marbury v. Madison
Which Supreme Court case established the principle of judicial review?
Brown v. Board of Education
Which court case reversed Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled segregation unconstitutional?
Miranda v. Arizona
Which Supreme Court case required that police inform the accused of their rights before questioned?
administrative law
laws established by government agencies
panel of at least three judges
How are decisions made in a court of appeals?