149 terms

Masters Social Work Licensing Exam - Section 1

Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in the Environment

Terms in this set (...)

What theory is Sigmund Freud best known for?
Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
What are the three levels of consciousness in Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?
1. Conscious
2. Preconscious
3. Unconscious
What does the 'conscious' entail?
mental activities we are fully aware of.
What is the 'preconscious'?
Feelings, thoughts, and ideas of which we are not currently aware but can bring to awareness easily.
What is the 'unconscious'?
This is feelings, thoughts, memories, and desires of which we are unaware.
What are the 2 main components of psychoanalysis focused on bringing unconscious conflicts to the awareness of patients?
1.Free Association
2. Dream Interpretation
What are the three components of personality?
1. id
2. ego
3. superego
What are 'instincts'?
inborn factors that give force and direction to psychological activities.
Name the two motivating instincts.
1. Life (eros)
2. Death (thanatos)
Id is the only part of the personality present at:
Id operates off of the:
Pleasure principle.
Ego develops from the:
The development of the ego is connected with:
the psychosexual development of a child
The ego seeks to gain:
the gratification of need in a socially acceptable manner.
The ego is also a development of:
reality based need.
The superego is the development of a:
value system.
What are the two aspects of the superego?
1. Conscience
2. Ego ideal
What are Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages of Development
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital
What is the Oral Stage Age Range?
Birth to 1 year of age
What is the Anal Stage Age Range?
2 to 3 years of age
What is the Phallic Stage Age Range?
3 to 6 years of age
Name two complexes in the Phallic Stage.
1. Oedipus
2. Electra
What is one example of an activity that takes place in the oral stage?
Breastfeeding (sucking meets the need of being satisfied with milk)
What is one example of an activity that takes place in the anal stage?
Potty training (child learns to control bowel movements)
What is one example of an activity that takes place in the phallic stage?
Fascination with penis, clitoris, and vulva. Associated with pleasure and lead to Oedipus and Electra complexes.
The superego is also the internalized value system implemented by the:
Latency Period is during:
6-11 years of age.
Name one activity associated with latency stage:
Rejection of sexual urges and maintenance of parental standards.
Genital stage is during what period of time?
12 years to adulthood
Name one activity associated with the genital stage.
Intercourse with opposite sex becomes an erotic activity
What main area is Alfred Adler associated with?
Individual Psychology
Adler believed that human beings begin in a state of:
Inadequacy and Inferiority
Adler believed that individuals are seen in relation to their:
Adler believed that an individual's degree of functioning successfully in groups is an indicator of:
Individual wellness
Adler believed that a child's personality development was dependent upon:
1. Birth order
2. Neglect
2. Pampering
3. Physical problems
Adler believed that children's interpretation and response to life events were dependent upon their development of:
Self Image or Fiction
Adler believed that psychoanalysis needs to be:
1. Non-authoritarian,
2. have equal patient-therapist interaction,
3. and have engaged empathy and focus on daily life experiences to be effective
Watson was best know for his work with:
Watson's famous experiment involved:
Little Albert: conditioned a small child to be fearful of a white rat and then showed general behavioral responses when using a white rabbit.
Watson believed that behavior could be:
Shaped through stimulus-response
Watson focused on:
Observable behaviors versus emotional or mental states that could not be observed
What is Pavlov best known for?
Classical or Respondent Conditioning
Define: Unconditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that innately evokes a response from an organism.
Ex. the meat powder Pavlov presented to his dogs resulted in an unconditioned response of salivation.
Define: Unconditioned Response
Innate response to stimulus.
Ex. Salivation due to meat powder presented by Pavlov in dog experiment.
Define: Conditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that does not innately evoke a response in an organism but that the organism learns to respond to because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Ex. Pavlov's dog learned to respond to the ringing of a bell because the bell had been repeatedly paired with presentation of meat powder.
Define: Conditioned Response
Organism's learned response to a conditioned stimulus. Ex. Pavlov's dogs learned response to the ringing of the bell was salivation.
Piaget is best known for:
Cognitive Development
Piaget believed human beings learned in what 2 ways?
1. Assimilation
2. Accommodation
Define: Assimilation
A person incorporates aspects of his or her environment into an existing thought structure.
Define: Accommodation
Modifying current thought structure to incorporate a new perceived environment.
What are Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
1. Sensorimotor
2. Pre-Operational
3. Concrete Operations
4. Formal Operations
Sensorimotor Stage takes place during what time of the child's life?
Birth to 2 years
Sensorimotor Stage: Infant starts to understand the world through what two concepts?
1. Perception
2. Action.
This is the movement stage.
What is the Preoperational Stage time period?
2-7 years of age
In the Preoperational Stage what does a child begin to develop?
1. agine actions
2. mental representations
3. thought processes
What is the Concrete Operations time frame?
7 to 11 years of age
What does the child start to develop in the Concrete Operations time frame?
1. Logical thinking
2. imaginations are constrained by reality
3. can perform logical operations on concrete objects
What is the Formal Operations time frame?
11 years to Adulthood
In Formal Operations what does a child develop?
abstract reasoning
Vigotsky is best known for:
Child Development
Vigotsky focused mainly on how a child:
Vigotsky believed children learned best in a:
supportive environment where they are not being told how to do things but recognizing what needs to be done themselves through trial and error.
Lewin was best known for his work in:
1. Applied Psychology
2. Organizational Management
3. Social Psychology
Lewin investigated:
Group dynamics
Lewin invented:
1. Sensitivity training
2. Lewin's Equation for Behavior
What is Lewin's Equation for Behavior?
B=f(P,E) which acknowledges that both nature and nurture interact in shaping of individuals.
Lewin created these three types of Leadership Climates.
1. Authoritarian
2. Democratic
3. Laissez faire
Anna Freud best known for:
Defense Mechanisms
Ego defense mechanisms are:
Unconscious strategies used by the ego
to minimize distress caused by conflicting demands
of the id and superego.
Name the defense mechanisms described by Anna Freud:
1. Compensation
2. Conversion
3. Denial
4. Displacement
5. Identification
6. Intellectualization
7. Isolation of affect
8. Projection
9. Rationalization
10. Reaction Formation
11. Regression
12. Repression
13. Sublimation
14. Substitution
15. Undoing
Define: Compensation
seeking success in one area of life
as a substitute for success in another area of life
that has been limited because of
personal or environmental barriers.
Define: Conversion
transformation of anxiety into physical dysfunction
such as paralysis or blindness,
which does not have a physiological basis
Define: Denial
refusal to acknowledge an aspect of reality
including one's experience because to do so
would result in overwhelming anxiety
Define: Displacement
shifting of negative feeling one has about
a person or situation
onto a different person or situation
Define: Identification
anxiety is handled through identifying with
the person or thing producing the anxiety,
such as "identifying with a kidnapper"
Define: Intellectualization
reasoning is used to block difficult feelings.
Involves removing one's emotions
from a stressful event.
Define: Isolation of affect
painful feelings are separated from the incident
that triggered them initially
Define: Projection
one's own negative characteristics are denied
and instead seen as being characteristics
of someone else's
Define: Rationalization
a person substitutes a more socially acceptable,
logical reason for an action rather than
identifying the real motivation
Define: Reaction Formation
adopting a behavior that is the antithesis
of the instinctual urge
(e.g. acting as if one has deep sympathies
for an oppressed group when the individual
actually has significant prejudices against that group)
Define: Regression
reverting to more primitive modes of coping
associated with earlier and safer developmental periods
Define: Repression
unconscious pushing of anxiety producing
thoughts and issues out of the conscious
and into the unconscious.
Define: Sublimation
intolerable drives or desires
are diverted into activities that are acceptable
Define: Substitution
a person replaces an unacceptable goal
with an acceptable one
Define: Undoing
an individual engages in a repetitious ritual
in an attempt to reverse an unacceptable action
previously taken
Maslow is best known for:
Hierarchy of Needs
According to Maslow what are the most basic to advanced needs in his hierarchy?
1. Physiological needs
2. safety needs
3. belonging and love needs
4. esteem needs
5. self-actualization
Spitz was best known for work in:
1. Attachment
2. Anaclitic depression
Spitz was primarily focused on:
Ego development of the child
and the relationship between mother and child.
What settings did Spitz work in?
1. hospitals
2. orphanages
Define: Hospitalism or Anaclitic Depression
Children in hospitals or orphanages
were observed to have noted emotional deficiencies
that had significant effects
on their psycho-emotional development
Erikson was best know for work in what area?
Ego Psychology
What three principles did Spitz identify in the psychological development of children?
Erikson believed, unlike Freud, that:
Development occurs across the lifespan
How many stages of Psychosocial Development developed by Erikson?
What are the eight stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Development theory?
1. Hope: trust vs. mistrust
(oral-sensory, infancy, 0-2 years)
2. Will: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
(early childhood, 2-4 years)
3. Purpose: initiative vs. guilt
(locomotor-genital, preschool, 4-5 years)
4. Competence: industry vs. inferiority
(latency, school age, 5-12 years)
5. Fidelity: identity vs. role confusion
(adolescence, 13-19 years)
6. Love: intimacy vs. isolation
(early adulthood, 20-39 years)
7. Care: generativity vs. stagnation
(adulthood, 40-64 years)
8. Wisdom: ego integrity vs. despair
(maturity, 65 - death)
9. Ninth stage
Describe Erikson's Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
Quality of relationship with mother
and satisfaction of need to be fed or stimulated determines level of TRUST OR MISTRUST
Describe Erikson's Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4 years of age)
Gain independence and control of bowel movements. Parents who encourage will strengthen autonomy.
Parents who are too rigid will encourage
compulsive or stingy behavior.
Describe Erikson's Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years of age)
Development of language, locomotion, and managing themselves and environment. Parents need to encourage and provide opportunities for appropriate initiative taking otherwise child develops a sense of guilt.
Describe Erikson's Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11)
School aged children have a need to engage in worthwhile activities and stick to them until completion giving them a sense of recognition and satisfaction. Parents/teachers need to provide tasks otherwise feeling inferior if not given activities to complete.
Describe Erikson's Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (12-18)
Changes in body and appearance, social roles, sexual feelings, lead to confusion.
Describe Erikson's Stage 6: intimacy vs. isolation (19-30's)
Committed relationships help to establish intimacy. If this is difficult individuals will isolate and become self-absorbed.
Describe Erikson's Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-Absorption (30-50's)
Committed to relationship and having children vs. not
Describe Erikson's Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair (60's and beyond)
Worthwhile life vs. Insufficient time to create another life
Mahler was best known for work with:
Separation-Individuation Process (Psychological Birth of the Infant)
Mahler studied interactions between:
mother and infant and the process by which the infant individuates from the mother
What is Object Relations according to Mahler?
Process by which the infant struggles over the first few years to differentiate between self and non-self
Mahler proposed a theory of development called:
Stage Based Developmental Theory
Stage 1: Normal Autism (birth to 1 month) - Mahler
Infant sense of self is fragmented and little evidence that child is aware of others.
Stage 2: Symbiosis or Normal Symbiotic (1-4 months) MAHLER
Perceives mother as object of gratification. Senses mother and infant as one entity.
Stage 3: Separation-Individuation (4-8 months) MAHLER
Development of infant's ego, sense of identity, and cognitive abilities.
Four substages of Separation-Individuation:
1.) Differentiation from Mother/Hatching 2.) Practicing 3.) Rapprochement 4.)Achievement of Individuality
Skinner is best know for work with:
Operant Conditioning
Describe: Operant Conditioning
Consequences are used to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Modification of voluntary behavior through the use of consequences. (Pavlovian conditioning deals with the conditioning of behavior so that it occurs under new antecedent conditions)
What are the four types of Operant Conditioning?
1. Extinction
2. Negative Reinforcements
3. Positive Reinforcements
4. Punishment
Positive and Negative reinforcement do what?
Strengthen behavior
Punishment and Extinction do what?
Weaken behavior
Kohlberg best know for work with:
Moral Development
Kohlberg proposed that there were 3 general levels of moral development?
1. Pre-Conventional Morality
2. Conventional Morality
3. Post-Conventional Morality
Kohlberg's Pre-Conventional Morality has 2 Stages including:
1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation: good actions result in reward and bad actions result in punishment
2. Naive Instrumental Orientation: Action satisfies one's individual needs and needs of others; you scratch my back I scratch yours.
Pre-Conventional Morality is based on:
Individual perspective
Kohlberg's Conventional Morality is based on:
Member of Society Perspective;
whereby an individual conforms to expectations of family, group, and nation;
the individual supports the existing social order.
According to Kohlberg: Conventional Morality has 2 stages. They are:
1. Good boy, nice girl orientation: individual is striving to behave in ways to please, help, and receive approval from others.
2. Law and order orientation: Individual's correct behavior conforms to social norms. (e.g. doing one's duty)
According to Kohlberg, Post Conventional Morality is based on:
Identification of universal moral principles
According to Kohlberg, Post Conventional Morality has 2 stages. They are:
1. Social Contract Orientation: Moral behavior which has been carefully examined and to which the whole society consents.
2. Universal ethical principle orientation: moral behavior that is in harmony with the individual's conscience and is based on ethical principles that he or she selected.
Bowlby is best know for work with:
Attachment Theory
Bowlby believed:
The nature of our attachments with our caregivers is the blueprint for future relationships.
Describe Bowlby's Separation Anxiety:
It is evident at 6-8 months.
Baby is distressed when being separated from caregiver.
Describe Bowlby's Stranger Anxiety:
It is evident at 8 months of age. Baby is distressed by seeing a stranger's face as opposed to the face of a familiar person such as their mother.
Describe Bowlby's Protest Phase:
Child protest when separated from mother.
Describe Bowlby's Despair/Depression Phase:
Child's protests are replaced with despair manifested by crying for mother which turns into depression.
Describe Bowlby's Detachment Phase:
Child achieves detachment through repression. Seen as adaptive response from child. If overused can be problematic.
Describe Bowlby's Anaclitic Depression:
Depression of infant who is removed from mother.
Describe Bowlby's Proximity Maintenance:
Desire to be near the people whom we are attached.
Describe Bowlby's Safe Haven:
Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of fear or threat.
Describe Bowlby's Secure Base:
Point of security, usually the mother, from which the child can explore the surrounding environment without fear of abandonment
Describe Bowlby's Separation Distress:
Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure
PIE (Person In Environment) theory was developed by:
James Karl and Karen Wandrei - Assessment system designed for social workers to assess the social functioning of adult clients.
PIE seeks to:
Balance problems and strengths
What are the 5 stages of dying
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
What work is Kubler-Ross best known for?
She established the Theory of Stages of Dying
Chestang asserted that everyone is part of what 2 systems?
1. Nurturing system
2. Sustaining system
Define: Nurturing system
Consists of individuals family, intimate friends, and immediate community.
Define: Sustaining system
institutions of the larger society.
What are the 4 components of Bicultural Identity?
1. Traditional Adaptation
2. Marginal Adaptation
3. Assimilation
4. Bicultural Adaptation
Define: Traditional Adaptation
Behavior, values, beliefs of individuals of a diverse group that are distinct from those of the majority group. Ex. Extended families tend to be strong and there is an expectation for children to marry within their own ethnic group.
Define: Marginal Adaptation
Occurs when individuals do not adhere closely to the values and behaviors of either their ethnic group or of the larger society, often resulting in cultural conflict.
Define: Assimilation
Occurs when individuals learn to value norms of the Sustaining System and to devalue the norms of their ethnic group.
Define: Bicultural Adaptation
Occurs when individuals integrate norms, values, and beliefs of their ethnic group and of the larger society.