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cell division quiz
Terms in this set (20)
Why do cells need to divide?
repair damaged tissues, replace damaged worn out cells, immunity, growth, reproduction, keep surface area to volume ratio large
What cell part represents surface area and volume?
SA - Cell membrane V - Cytoplasm and organelles
What is the cell cycle?
regular sequence of cell growth, DNA replication, division
What are the main stages of the cell cycle?
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
90% of the cells life is spent in...
What are the 3 phases that interphase consist of?
First Growth (G1), Synthesis, Second Growth Phase (G2)
What happens in G1?
Cell grows and produces the organelles and enzymes needed
What happens in Synthesis?
Cell makes an exact copy of DNA in its nucleus in a process called replication. At the end of replication, the cell contains 2 identical sets of chromosomes
What happens in G2?
Preparation for cell division. Enough organelles are prepared for 2 cells.
What is a chromatid?
during DNA replication, the cell makes an exact copy of the chromosomes. During prophase of mitosis, the chromosomes coil into the dense rods and can be seen
What is mitosis?
the division of the nucleus into two nuclei. Each nuclei has a complete set of chromosomes identical to the parent cell
What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What happens during prophase?
chromosomes condense into chromatid. centrioles move into opposite sides of the cell (Does not happen in plant cell). spindle fibers form a bridge between centrioles nuclear membrane and nucleolus break down.
what happens during metaphase?
each chromatid attaches to a spindle fiber at the centromere. The chromatids are pulled up to line at center of the cell.
What happens during anaphase?
chromatids are pulled from the spindle fibers at the centromere into the individual chromosomes. The spindle fibers move each set of chromosomes towards opposite ends of cell.
What happens during telophase?
each set of chromosomes are made a new nuclear membrane and nucleolus. The spindle fibers break down. Chromosomes start to uncoil. Cytokinesis begins.
What is the last phase the cell cycle?
What is cytokinesis?
the division of the cytoplasm and distribution of structures. Starts during telophase. When completed each identical daughter cell enters interphase and a new cell cycle begins.
What happens in animal cell for cytokinesis?
the cell membrane pinches in and forms a furrow. The furrow continues until there are two separate cells.
What happens in plant cells for cytokinesis?
A cell plate forms across the middle of the cell. New cell membrane forms on each side of the cell plate and then new cell walls form.
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