448 terms

Certified Meeting Professional (CMP) Exam

CMP Examination Terminology and definitions as provided in the 8th Edition of the Convention Industry Council Manual and the APEX Glossary.
STUDY
PLAY
Evaluation
1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics.
Objective
Formalized statement of outcomes to be anticipated as a result of the educational process.
Outsourcing
Hiring an outside firm or individual to perform the task instead of using in-house staff; to subcontract a task or responsibility to a third party.
Return on investment
ROI. Net Profit divided by Net Worth. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability. To calculate, use event revenues minus program expenses divided by program expenses, multiplied by 100 to get the ROI %.
Stakeholder
All individuals who are invested in a project or event such as the sponsors, attendees, vendors, media and others.
Strategic plan
Long range plan of action for a company or organization.
Educational programming committee
A group of voluntary committee members with vested interests in program content who are commonly used to establish direction for educational programs offered at association meetings.
Focus group
Method of doing research using a small group led by a facilitator.
Kiosk
1) Free-standing pavilion or light structure, often inside a facility, where printed or electronic information is available. 2) A small enclosure for ticket sales, information, etc.
Program design
Structure of event program elements to achieve specific goals and objectives.
Sampling
1) A research method based upon selecting a portion of a population for study. 2) Paperwork and fees paid to a building by exhibitors for the right to serve food product.
Survey
Solicitation of opinions regarding services; questionnaire.
Audience reaction team
4 or 5 participants query the main speaker from the stage with questions from the audience and follow up questions.
Buzz session
Method to increase audience participation by dividing all participants in discussion groups each of which reports the group's findings and opinions during a following plenary session.
Certified Speaking Professional (CSP)
CSP. Accredited designation offered by the National Speakers Association. This designation is earned for extensive, documented speaking experience and client satisfaction.
Colloquium
An informal meeting for the purpose of discussion; usually of an academic or research nature and in order to ascertain areas of mutual interest through exchange of ideas. Conducted as and when convenient, but with little regularity.
Debate
A discussion which takes place within a meeting, a public or private sitting or in one of the various types of assembly or meeting.
Facilitator
An individual who guides discussion and/or decision making.
Fishbowl
An interchange between an inner circle debating an issue and an outer circle of observers. Individuals occasionally move from one circle to the other.
Interview
The presenter is questioned by a moderator on behalf of the audience.
National Speakers Association (NSA)
National Speakers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Seminar
1) Lecture and dialogue allowing participants to share experiences in a particular field under the guidance of an expert discussion leader. 2) A meeting or series of meetings of from 10 to 50 specialists who have different specific skills but have a specific common interest and come together for training or learning purposes. The work schedule of a seminar has the specific object of enriching the skills of the participants.
Speakers bureau
An organization who locates and books speakers according to my specifications and budget.
Symposium
A meeting of a number of experts in a particular field, at which papers are presented and discussed by specialists on particular subjects with a view to making recommendations concerning the problems under discussion.
Workshop
1) Meeting of several persons for intensive discussion. The workshop concept has been developed to compensate for diverging views in a particular discipline or on a particular subject. 2) Informal and public session of free discussion organized to take place between formal plenary sessions or commissions of a congress or of a conference, either on a subject chosen by the participants themselves or else on a special problem suggested by the organizers. 3) Training session in which participants, often through exercises, develop skills and knowledge in a given field.
Accreditation
Official authorization or approval; to provide with credentials; to send (an envoy) with letters of authorization; to recognize or vouch for as conforming with a standard; to recognize a college as maintaining academic standards; to consider or recognize as outstanding; approval given by various trade associations to a travel agency allowing the sale of tickets and other accommodations.
Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME)
The organization who provides accrediation for Continuing Medical Education (CME).
American Bar Association (ABA)
The organization who administers Continuing Legal Education and Mandatory Continuing Legal Education courses (CLE and MCLE).
Certification
Program and process by which a participant completes proscribed training and passes an assessment.
Continuing education
Structured educational and training experiences for personal or professional development.
Continuing Education Unit (CEU)
CEU. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. CEUs are non-academic credit. One CEU is awarded for each 10 contact hours in an accredited program.
Certified Association Executive (CAE)
Certified Association Executive.
Certificate in Meeting Management (CMM)
Certificate in Meeting Management.
Certified Meeting Professional (CMP)
1) Certified Meeting Professional. 2) Complete Meeting Package at conference centers; includes lodging, all food and beverage, support services, including audio visual equipment, room rental, etc.
Certified Professional Catering Executive (CPCE)
Certified Professional Catering Executive. A certification program offered by the National Association of Catering Executives (NACE).
Certified Special Event Professional (CSEP)
Certified Special Event Professional; an earned designation from the International Special Events Society (ISES).
Continuing Legal Education (CLE)
Continuning education requirements for legal professionals are adminstered by the American Bar Association (ABA).
Continuing Medical Education (CME)
Organizations offering this type of continuing education credits are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME).
Internatinoal Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET)
International Association for Continuing Education and Training.
Lecture
Informative and instructional speech.
Lifelong learning
An ongoing process in which an individual actively seeks to understand and contribute to change.
Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE)
Mandatory continuning education requirements for legal professionals are adminstered by the American Bar Association (ABA).
Needs assessment
A needs assessment is an essential setp in ensuring that educational offerings are relevant to attendees. The results of post-event evaluations can be as valuable as a needs assessment.
Break-even point
The point at which revenues are equal to expenses.
Cash flow
The transfer of monies into and out of an enterprise.
Fixed costs
The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.
Incremental budgeting
Building an event budet by analyzing both the projected and actual figures from the previous year's budget.
Indirect costs
Also called overhead or administrative costs, these are expenses not directly related to the event. They can include salaries, rent, and building and equipment maintenance.
Variable costs
Expenses that vary based upon various factors, such as the number of attendees .
Zero-based budgeting
Building an event budget on estimates of potential income and likely expenses because there is no financial history from prior events available to use.
Accrual accounting
1) An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred (cash accounting). 2) A system in which revenue and expenses are accounted for as soon as they are committed.
Advance deposit
Amount of money paid to secure a room, facility or service in advance.
Audiovisual
A/V. Equipment, materials, and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations, such as television monitors, video, sound equipment, etc.
Balance sheet
A statement that indicates overall financial status by subtracting expenses from income.
Billing instructions
Notice as to how charges for an event should be handled and to whom invoices should be addressed.
Budget
A statement of estimated revenues and expenditures for a specified period of time; divided into subject categories and arranged by principal areas of revenue and expense. See BUDGET CHART. See Also CASH FLOW CHART, PHASED BUDGET.
Cash accounting
A system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received.
Chart of accounts
A detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget. A numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts.
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
CFO. Executive responsible for financial affairs of an organization.
Cost center
An account (usually a number) to which expenses for a function or activity are charged.
Direct billing
Accounts receivable made available to individuals or firms with established credit.
Income statement
A statement of revenues and expenses. Also known as a profit & loss statement.
Master account
A record of transactions during an event where the resulting balance is paid directly by the group. May include room, tax, incidentals, food and beverage, audiovisual equipment, decor, etc. Also Called MASTER BILL.
Net worth
Assets minus liabilities.
Paid-out
In-house facility form authorizing cash withdrawal to be charged to master account or individual guest.
Acceptance
A requirement for entering into a binding contract. If a contract proposal (offer) is made, it is accepted if the offeree signs the offer as submitted. If the offeree makes any changes to the offer before signing, it is a counter offer, not acceptance.
Act of God
An extraordinary natural event such as extreme weather, flood, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquake or similar natural disaster that cannot be reasonably foreseen or prevented over which a contracting party has no reasonable control, making performance of the contract illegal, impracticable or impossible, thus the parties have no legal responsibility to continue performance of the contract. See FORCE MAJEURE.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
An alternative procedure that can be specified in contracts instead of going through the process of filing a complaint and pursuing the claim in court.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Americans with Disabilities Act. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
Arbitration
Private dispute resolution process, often referred to as alternate dispute resolution, in which the parties agree to submit their dispute to an impartial third party for a decision. Depending on the type of arbitration, the arbitrator's decision may or may not be binding. Several organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and JAMS-Endispute, handle arbitration claims. Courts may require some disputes be submitted to arbitration instead of or prior to the formal trial process.
Attrition clause
Contract wording that outlines potential damages or fees that a party may be required to pay in the event that it does not fulfill minimum commitments in the contract.
Authorized signatory
A person who is authorized to legally bind an individual or organization to a contract, to sign checks on behalf of an organization, or charge to an organization's master account.
Cancellation clause
Provision in a contract which outlines damages to be paid to the non-canceling party if cancellation occurs, due the canceling party's breach of the contract.
Certificate of insurance
A document provided by an insurance company as proof that a policy has been issued and coverage is in effect.
Clause
A detailed section of a contract pertaining to a specific issue.
Concession
1) Merchandise or refreshments sold on site, to individuals, in conjunction with an event. 2) Contractual agreement where one party provides something of value to the other party in exchange for something else, pending certain conditions.
Consideration
The inducement to a contract. The cause, motive, price, or impelling influence which induces a contracting party to enter a contract.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other's duty or a remedy for the breach of the other's duty. See COMMITMENT. See Also LETTER OF AGREEMENT. See Also Commitment Letter of Agreement
Cut-off date
Designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. The date is typically three to four weeks before the event. See RESERVATION REVIEW DATE. See Also Reservation Review Date
Exclusive
Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party. A general service contractor, for instance, may have an "exclusive" in a particular facility, meaning that no other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
Force majeure
An event (e.g. war, labor strike, extreme weather, or other disruptive circumstances) or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled: a "fortuitous event." See ACT OF GOD. See Also Act of God
General liability insurance
An insurance policy that provides protection against claims involving bodily injury and property damage to third parties.
Good faith
A true and honest effort to uphold the law. (as in Good Faith Effort)
Hold harmless
A type of indemnity clause that requires one party to fully protect the other from a claim asserted. This would include the payment of costs or attorney fees.
Indemnification clause
A contract clause in which one party agrees to pay damages or claims that the other party may be required to pay to another. For example, if a hotel is sued by an attendee that is injured at an event due to the fault of the group, an indemnification clause might require the group to pay back the hotel. Some times the law requires one party to indemnify another even without a specific clause. Generally, the terms of the clause will be followed over the state law. See HOLD HARMLESS. See Also Hold Harmless
Jurisdiction
1) The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union. 2) The locality where a contractual dispute is decided. 3) In law, the ability of a court to hear and decide a matter brought before it.
Liability
Legal responsibility. An obligation to pay an amount in damages. In a non-legal context, something that is a negative factor.
Liquidated damage clause
Part of a cancellation clause that outlines the amount of damages to be paid to the noncelling party in the event of a cancellation.
Mediation
Dispute resolution process in which the parties use a third party to assist them in reaching a compromise. The mediator may work with both sides together, or may act as "go between" in an attempt to move the sides toward agreement. The mediator may act informally, or be appointed by a judge or by agreement of the parties through an alternative dispute resolution organization like American Arbitration Association (AAA) or Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Service (JAMS). Unlike arbitration, a mediator is not empowered to impose a decision on the parties.
Non-performance
To neglect to carry out an agreement.
Offer
A promise, proposal or other expression of willingness to make and carry out a contract under proposed terms with another party which has the ability to accept it upon receiving it. Space and rent proposal from a facility. It may be in the form of a contract or license agreement.
Provision
Detailed section of a contract.
Union
A labor organization, typically made up of workers from the same trade formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests such as dealing collectively with their employer on issues of wages, hours, working conditions and other matters pertaining to their employment.
Waiver of subrogation
A release of rights to substitute one party for another party. The release of an insurance company right to succeed to the insured's rights to sue for damages against the tortfeasor, after the insurance company pays an insured's claim of loss due to another's tort.
Walk
Guest holding confirmed sleeping room reservation is denied accommodations at the hotel where to reservation is held upon their arrival and is relocated to another hotel.
APEX Post Event Report (PER)
PER. The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete History for an event. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX POST EVENT REPORT, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (www.conventionindustry.org).
APEX RFP
RFP. A document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services. Same As BID MANUAL/SPECIFICATIONS. See Also Bid Manual/Specifications
Convention and visitors bureau (CVB)
CVB. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the long-term development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
Destination Marketing Association International
A nonprofit organization representing specific destinations formerly known as the International Association of Convention & Visitors Bureaus. Members have expert knowledge of their city and its surrounding areas; typically they represent local hotels and motels, converence and convention centers, restaurants, attractions, etc.
Event profile
Provides the event's basic specifications and captures all the information gathered. A detailed event specifications package should include things like the goals and objectives of the event, attendee profile, prefered and optional dates, the number and type of guest rooms needed, the tentative program schedule, registration area, range of acceptable guest room rates, av requirements, etc.
History
Record of an event over time.
Meeting Information Network (MINT)
Meeting Industry Network (formerly CINET or Convention Industry Network). On-line information network tracking historical and future site/booking information. CINET is provided by IACVB to its members.
Post-event report
PER. The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete History for an event. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX POST EVENT REPORT, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (www.conventionindustry.org).
Request for proposal (RFP)
RFP. A document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services. Same As BID MANUAL/SPECIFICATIONS. See Also Bid Manual/Specifications
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Americans with Disabilities Act. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
Backbone
A permanently installed series of cable comprised of copper wire cable and/or fiber optic cable, utilized as the main thoroughfare in a building to transmit voice and data signals in or out of the facility.
Category cable
(Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable or UTP) Usually referred to as Cat 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 cable. Cat 5 transmits data the fastest. Fast Ethernet requires enhanced Cat 5 cable or Cat 5 to operate at its full potential. See BACKBONE. See Also Backbone
Complimentary room
A sleeping room or function room provided to an individual or organization at no cost. See COMPLIMENTARY RATIO.
See Also Complimentary Ratio
Conference center
A facility that provides a dedicated environment for events, especially small events. May be certified by the International Association of Conference Centers.
Convention center
Facility that combines an exhibition space with a substantial number of smaller event spaces. The purpose of these buildings is to host trade shows, public shows, conventions, large food functions and other functions related to the convention industry. They may be purpose built or converted and municipally or privately owned. See EXHIBITION CENTER. See Also FACILITY, HALL. See Also Exhibition Center Facility Hall
DSL
Digital subscriber line. Brings high bandwidth via copper phone lines.
Familiarization (fam) trip
Familiarization Trip. Offered to potential buyers of a venue, a program designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of an event. Often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis. See SITE INSPECTION.
See Also Site Inspection
Fiber-optic cable
A cable that is made up of tiny glass strands that are wrapped and bundled together to make up a cable. Fiber can transmit voice, data and video at gigabyte speed, or 1 billion bytes per second, with less signal loss than copper wire because the signal is carried by light rather than electricity. See BACKBONE. See Also Backbone
Flate rate
Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available sleeping rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. See RUN-OF-THE-HOUSE RATE.
Full American Plan
AP. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN. See Also Inclusive Rate Bermuda Plan Continental Plan Demi-Pension European Plan Modified American Plan
High season
Period when the demand for a supplier's product or service is highest. Prices general increase in high season. Also Called PEAK SEASON. Compare With LOW SEASON.
See Also Low Season
ISDN
A type of digital telecommunication line that provides high speed internet access for mulitple users.
Low season
Period when the demand for a supplier's product or service is lowest. Prices general decrease in low season. Also Called VALUE SEASON. Compare With HIGH SEASON.
See Also High Season
Modified American Plan
MAP. A type of room rate that includes breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See DEMI-PENSION. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, EUROPEAN PLAN. See Also Demi-Pension American Plan Bermuda Plan Continental Plan European Plan
Network
Two or more computers or peripherals that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data.
PCMA Space Verification Program
Certification of measurements of meeting space through the Function Space Verification Program offered by the Professional Convention Management Association or through graphics layout software companies, e.g. MeetingMatrix.
Shoulder season
Period when the demand for a supplier's product or service is neither high nor low. See HIGH SEASON. See Also LOW SEASON. See Also High Season Low Season
Site inspection
In-person on-site review and evaluation of a venue or location for an event. See FAM TRIP. See Also Fam Trip
T-1 line
Transmitting data at speeds of up to 1.544 Mbps, operates at a much higher capacity than an ISDN line and can be split to accommodate several users at one time (known as a fractional T-1).
T-3 line
Transmitting data at speeds of up to 44.184 Mbps, is faster than a T-1 line, allowing performance of more tasks simultaneously at a greater speed. See T-1 LINE.
See Also T-1 Line
Yield management
Computer program that uses variable pricing models to maximize the return on a fixed (perishable) inventory, such as hotel rooms, based on supply-and-demand theory.
Booth
One or more standard units of exhibit space. In the US, a standard unit is generally known to be a 10' x 10' space (one standard booth/stand unit, equaling 100 nsf). However, if an exhibitor purchases multiple units side-by-side or back-to-back, the combined space is also still referred to as a BOOTH or a STAND. Specific area assigned by management to exhibitor under contractual agreement. See STAND.
See Also Stand
Carnet
A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds.
Certificate of origin
A document, required by certain countries for tariff purposes, certifying as to the country of origin of specified goods.
Commerical invoice
An itemized statement furnished to a purchaser by a seller and usually specifying the price of goods or services and the terms of sale.
Consular invoice
A document, required by some countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by that country's customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
Customs broker
An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country. In the United States, a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law.
Destination management company (DMC)
DMC. A professional services company possessing extensive local knowledge, expertise and resources, specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, transportation and program logistics. Depending on the company and the staff specialists in the company, they offer, but are not limited to, the following: creative proposals for special events within the meeting; guest tours; VIP amenities and transportation; shuttle services; staffing within convention centers and hotels; teambuilding, golf outings and other activities; entertainment, including sound and lighting; décor and theme development; ancillary meetings and management professionals; and, advance meetings and onsite registration services and housing. See Also Professional Congress Organizer Ground Operator
Export declaration
Required for shipments valued at more than $2500; used by the U.S. government to monitor the dollar volume of export shipments.
Export license
A government document which permits the "licensee" to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
Foreign exchange currency risk
Risk that an organization takes when dealing with foreign currency due to exchange rates fluctuating over time.
Freight forwarder
An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. At the request of the shipper, the forwarder makes the actual arrangements and provides the necessary services for expediting the shipment to its overseas destination. The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter's name. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. The forwarder operates on a fee basis paid by the exporter and often receives an additional percentage of the freight charge from the common carrier. In the United States, an export freight forwarder must be licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to handle ocean freight and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to handle air freight. An ocean freight forwarder dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers, books or arranges space for the shipments, and handles the shipping documentation. See INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT FORWARDER. See Also International Freight Forwarder
International event
An event that draws a national and international audience. Typically 15% or more of attendees reside outside of the host country.
Limited power of attorney
Permits the customs broker to complete the customs document upon the return of your shipment to the country of origin. A Power of Attorney allows one person to act as agent for another. A Limited Power of Attorney grants the right to act in only limited circumstances.
Professional congress organizer (PCO)
Professional Congress Organizer. European term for DMC (Destination Management Company). Local supplier who can arrange, manage and/or plan any function or service an event.
Simultaneous translation
Process of translating one language into another while the speaker is speaking. Same As SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION.
Site inspection
In-person on-site review and evaluation of a venue or location for an event. See FAM TRIP. See Also Fam Trip
Stand
European term for booth or exhibit. See BOOTH. See Also Booth
Travel agent
Person or firm which is licensed and specializes in travel related arrangements, such booking hotel rooms, meals, transportation, cruises, tours, vacation packages and other travel elements.
Value-added tax (VAT)
VAT. A tax that is added to a product at each step of the manufacturing and marketing process reflecting value which has been added to the product by processing.
Green event
An event that incoporates environmental considerations throughout all states of the planning process in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment.
Automated external defibrillator (AED)
Automated External Defibrillator. Device installed in many large public areas (e.g. airports, hotels, convention centers). Can be used by any individual to administer life-saving care to person experiencing a heart attack.
Cancellation Clause
Provision in a contract which outlines damages to be paid to the non-canceling party if cancellation occurs, due the canceling party's breach of the contract.
Cancellation or Interruption Insurance
Insurance that protects a event organizer against financial loss or expenses incurred when contractually specified perils necessitate canceling or relocating a event, or cause a reduction in attendance.
Confrontation
Efforts of a dissident group to obstruct the conduct of an event.
Demonstration
1) The act of showing how to do something. 2) A group of individuals organized to picket or protest against a group using placards, literature, songs, shouts and, sometimes, marches or sit-ins.
Mitigation
The activities that are undertaken to either reduce the probability that an emergency or crisis will occur or reduce the consequences if it does occur.
Risk management
Recognizing the possibility of injury, damage or loss, and having a means to prevent it or provide insurance.
Accessibility
1) Airline lift into and out of a destination. See Also LIFT. 2) Capable of being used by people with physical challenges and disabilities. This is an important aspect of the United States' Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). See Also Lift
Accommodation
1) Any seat, berth, room, or service provided and/or sold to a guest, attendee or passenger. 2) Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a step taken to allow a person with a disability to participate in an event or employment.
Assisted listening devices (ALD)
Devices that help people who are hard of hearing connect to the speaker system and use their hearing aids to hear the speaker more clearly.
Barrier-free
Absence of obstacles preventing handicapped persons from moving freely to all public areas within a building.
Schoolroom set-up
AKA Classroom set-up. Seating arrangement in which rows of tables with chairs face the front of a room and each person has a space for writing. Also Called SCHOOLROOM SET-UP.
Telecommunications devices for the deaf (TDD)
Devices for the deaf or hearing imparied available in public phone banks and/or at the registration desk.
Theater set-up
Seating arrangement in which seats are in rows facing the stage area, no tables. See AUDITORIUM SET-UP.
See Also Auditorium Set-Up
Banquet event order (BEO)
BEO. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Breakout session
Small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurrently within the event, formed to focus on specific subjects. The event is apart from the general session, but within the event format, formed to focus on specific subjects. These sessions can be arranged by basic, intermediate or advanced; or divided by interest areas or industry segment.
Convention services manager (CSM)
CSM. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
Event specifications guide (ESG)
AKA Group Specification Guide or Resume. Spec Guide. The industry preferred term for a comprehensive document that outlines the complete requirements and instructions for an event. This document is typically authored by the event planner and is shared with all appropriate vendors as a vehicle to communicate the expectations of services for a project. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX Specifications Guide, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (www.conventionindustry.org). Sometimes called STAGING GUIDE, RESUME, BIBLE.
Function set-up order
Other names for event order (EO), function sheet, or Banquet Event Order (BEO)
Group specifications guide
AKA Group Specification Guide or Resume. Spec Guide. The industry preferred term for a comprehensive document that outlines the complete requirements and instructions for an event. This document is typically authored by the event planner and is shared with all appropriate vendors as a vehicle to communicate the expectations of services for a project. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX Specifications Guide, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (www.conventionindustry.org). Sometimes called STAGING GUIDE, RESUME, BIBLE.
Logistics
Procurement, maintenance and transportation of materials. Involves all related functions and services.
Planning committee
Individuals who will participate in the pre-event meetings. Generally includes the planner, key members of planner's staff, CSM, Catering Managers, A/V representatives, room set-up representatives, etc.
Poster session
1) Display of reports and papers, usually scientific, accompanied by authors or researchers. 2) A session dedicated to the discussion of the posters shown inside the meeting area. When this discussion is not held in a special session, it can take place directly between the person presenting the poster and interested delegate(s). See ABSTRACT BOARD. See Also Abstract Board
Post-event meeting
A meeting at the primary facility at which an event occurred just after it has ended. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on evaluating the implementation of the event and completing the APEX POST EVENT REPORT. It often includes a final review of bills with accounts payable. Compare With PRE-CON MEETING. See Also Pre-Con Meeting
Post event report
PER. The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete History for an event. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX POST EVENT REPORT, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (www.conventionindustry.org).
Post-con
AKA Post Conference.Any event which is arranged for the period immediately following the conference proper.
Pre-event meeting
AKA Pre-con meeting. A meeting at the primary facility at which an event will take place just prior to the event beginning. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on reviewing the purpose and details of the event and making final adjustments as needed. Compare With POST-CON MEETING. See Also Post-Con Meeting
Pre-con
AKA Pre Conference.Any event which is arranged for the period immediately preceeding the conference proper.
Resume
See SPECIFICATIONS GUIDE. See Also Specifications Guide
Computer assisted drawing (CAD)
Computer Assisted Drawing/Computer Assisted Manufacturing. Some facilities have CAD systems to provide room setup diagrams.
Exhibition service contractor
Supplier of booth/stand equipment, rental furnishings, floor coverings, labor, drayage and signs for exhibitions and trade shows. See GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.
See Also General Service Contractor
Exclusive
Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party. A general service contractor, for instance, may have an "exclusive" in a particular facility, meaning that no other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
General service contractor
GSC. An organization that provides event management and exhibitors with a wide range of services, sometimes including, but not limited to, Installation & Dismantle, creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, drayage, and providing booth/stand furniture. See DECORATOR.
See Also Decorator
One-stop shop
A single source provider of goods or services.
Pick-up
Number of facility guest rooms actually used out of a room block.
Booking agent
1) Broadly, one who acts or has the power to act: more usually, one that acts as the representative of another. Most frequently in travel, a specific kind of agent such as a retail travel agent. 2) Person that obtains engagements for entertainers, is paid by the entertainers and has no contract for production responsibilities. 3) Person in a speaker bureau/agency that acts on behalf of the seller (speaker) or on behalf of the buyer (customer).
Change order
Facility form to advise departments of changes in reservations or functions.
Commission
A payment to a sales representative for meeting or exceeding a sales revenue goal. Or a payment made to an individual or organization for bringing business to another individual or organization.
Flying
Raising and supporting sound, lighting or other equipment or décor from the ceiling.
Ground support
Lifts, trusses, pipe or other freestanding devices used to raise sound, lighting or other equipment above the heads of attendees and to support it from the floor.
Housing company
AKA Housing Bureau. Organization that provides reservation services for a group and its attendees.
Incentive travel company
Company which designs and handles some or all elements of incentive travel programs.
In conjunction with (ICW)
In Conjunction With. An event or function that occurs because of another event.
Inducements
Marketing tools or programs used to influence buying patterns and build customer loyalty.
Multidisciplinary
A third party vendor or company that offers complete turnkey organization support for an event, including administrative and event management services.
Multi-management firm
A company that offers complete turnkey organization support for an event, including administrative and event management services.
Override
A commission over and above the normal base commission percentage.
Production company
A company that presents special effects and theatrical acts. This type of company may contract to put on an entire event or only parts of one. They sometimes hire speakers as part of their contract.
Rebates
A return of part of a payment.
Rider
An additional clause in artist's contract stipulating special requirements such as travel, dressing rooms, technical equipment, etc.
Rigging
1) The process of attaching the cable on a crane to a piece of machinery or equipment. 2) The process for hanging materials or signs.
Special event professional
AKA CSEP or Certified Special Event Professional, a designation offered by the International Special Events Society (ISES) earned through education, perofrmance, experience, and service to the industry.
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP)
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A membership organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States and grants licensing agreements for the performance of that music.
Association of Destination Management Executives (ADME)
Association of Destination Management Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI)
BMI. A music licensing organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States. It grants licensing agreements for the performance of music.
Contingency plan
An alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change.
Guest program
Educational and/or social events planned for spouses and guests of event participants.
Hospitality suite
1) Room or suite of rooms used to entertain guests. 2) An event in the United States usually separate from the exhibit, in which refreshments are served and exhibitor personnel and visitors socialize.
Music licensing
The right granted by one party to let a another party use live or recorded music through special agreements and fee structures.
Production company
A company that presents special effects and theatrical acts. This type of company may contract to put on an entire event or only parts of one. They sometimes hire speakers as part of their contract.
Application service provider (ASP)
ASP. A company that manages and distributes software-based solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data center. In essence, ASPs are a way for organizations to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs.
B2B
Business-to-Business.
Business exchange
A Web site that serves as a year-round online marketplace for buyers and sellers within a given marketplace. Such sites are also referred to as business-to-business (B2B) marketplaces, business-to-consumer (B2C) marketplaces or consumer-to-consumer (C2C), depending upon the target audience.
Chat room
Web sites that give visitors a reason to return to the site and be exposed to new offers.
Conference reminder
An email, bulk fax, or bulk mail broadcast that provides attendees and prospects with the latest news and information about an upcoming event. Such reminders are usually distributed on an opt-in basis. See EMAIL ALERT.
See Also Email Alert
Distance learning
A type of education where students work on their own at home or from an office, and communicate with faculty and other students via email, electronic forums, chat, webconferencing and other forms of online communication. Includes correspondence courses, audio, video and internet delivery. Meeting and event Web sites can facilitate distance learning by offering online educational programs.
Mailing list
List of names and addresses of the persons to whom publicity material or other information is to be sent.
Message board
An electronic message center or online discussion group, usually serving a special-interest group. They allow you to review messages left by others, and leave your own message if you choose. Also known as bulletin board systems or electronic forum. Also, a bulletin board on which messages can be tacked up.
On-demand
1) The opposite of real-time. 2) Audio and/or video programming available on a Web site after the completion of an event, providing this content so Web site visitors can listen or view at their discretion. 3) FAX system for sending out faxed material upon request.
Opt-in
An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information. Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing. See PERMISSION MARKETING.
See Also Permission Marketing
Opt-out
UNSURE OF THIS ANSWER - The opposite of an opt-in email marketing campaign?
Pay-per-view
1) Some Web-based content such as event Webcasts are made available to online customers on a pay-per-view basis, which means that customers have to pay to access this programming. 2) Video productions accessible to customers who pay for access to this programming.
Real-time
When online activities take place at a designated time, they are referred to as real-time events. A Webcast of a keynote presenter that can be watched live over the Internet is an example of a real-time event.
Shopping cart
Used to sell products through a Web site. An online shopping cart application allows customers to select and then purchase books, tapes and other items.
Trade show facilitation website
A Web-site whose primary function is to provide attendees (buyers) and exhibitors (sellers) with online tools that help facilitate participation in an upcoming event.
Webcast
An event that broadcasts the audio and/or video portion of a keynote presentation or other educational sessions over the Web in real-time or on-demand.
APEX
Accepted Practices Exchange. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
Audience polling
Computer application that enables voting and then collects and displays the results, simplifying decision-making among event participants.
Blog
Weblogs or online journals. An application that may change the face of event marketing.
Broadband
Ability to transmit huge volumes of voice and video over a network or the internet, without jumpy images.
Download
Transfer a file from a host computer to your computer.
Group ware
AKA Brainstorming. Group decision-making software and services use technology on-site to maximize the group decision and brainstorming process. Often the set-up involves a network of computers that event participants use to respond to questions, plls and information gathering conducted by a faciliator.
Interface
One of the advantages of a web-based event planning software solution or ASP is that clients already have the necessary tools available: a computer and a web browser. This familiar interface is cross-platforming, meaning that PCs, MACs, and large enterprise networks can all use it.
Lead retrieval
The process whereby exhibitors receive a potential customer's contact information in a standardized manner. A system for capturing and following-up on leads generated at an exhibition.
Link
Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture or information object to another. From a Web site, a link points to content.
Network
Two or more computers or peripherals that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data.
Podcast
Downloadable audio and video programs playable on MP3 players. This type of application may change the face of event marketing.
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
A new development using computer chips that can be read from a distance (similar to a bar code without the need for line of sight). This type of technology holds promise to help attendees, event managers and exhibitors share information, log into cyber cafes, track continuing education credits, and much more.
Relational databases
The type of platform that multi-purpose technology solutions designed to handle many event planning and management tasks are built on. They range in price from a few hundred dollars for a basic single-user program to hundreds of thousands of dollars for wide area networks involving hundreds of workstations or full-enterprise solutions for corporations or associations.
Application sharing
A feature of many videoconferencing systems that allows two or more people to use the same software program, even if all do not have it on their computer or conferencing system.
Bandwidth
The amount of information that can be transmitted in an information channel such as a telephone line, ISDN, or Ethernet. Higher bandwidth means that images and sound will load more quickly for use in videoconferences or on the Internet.
CODEC
Compression/Decompression or Coder/Decoder. Videoconferencing standard, included in hardware and/or software, used to compress or code video, audio, and data signals for transmission and decompress or decode the signal at the other end of the transmission.
Desktop videoconferenceing (DVC)
Affordable videoconferencing equipment that is available and allows participants to use their computers indead of proprietary hardware for virtual meetings. They provide real-time interaction using a personal computer.
Document sharing
A feature of many videoconference systems that allows participants at each conference site to view and edit the same document.
Downlink
The station which receives data transmissions from a communications satellite.
E-conferencing
Web based conferencing, a vital component of the modern event professional's toolbox.
ISDN
Integrated services digital network. A single ISDN line carries data at 128 Kbps. Although video conferences are possible at slower speeds, ISDN is considered to be the minimum for acceptable-quality video transmission.
Multi-point bridge
A service provider of videoconferencing which allows multiple sites to connect simultaneously. A bridge connects three or more tele- or videoconference sites for simultaneous communication.
Point-to-multipoint videoconference
A videoconference of more than two sites.
Room-based videoconferencing
Land-based system for videoconferencing designed to manage communication between one group of people, usually in a conference room setting, with another group or groups in similar settings elsewhere.
Set top box solutions (STBS)
STBS. Portable videoconferencing system, usually mounted on a rolling cart or hard-sided case for ease of transport from room to room or across the globe.
Streaming
The software that makes Webcasting work. These "stream" audio and video from a central source, or media server, to recipients on their personal computers.
Teleconferencing
Type of meeting which brings together three or more people in two or more locations through telecommunications. See CONFERENCE CALL. See Also Conference Call
Uplink
The station used to transmit signals from Earth to a satellite (videoconferencing).
Videoconferencing
Primary uses of satellite videoconferencing today are major announcements, product launches, and other presentations for which timeliness and a top-quality broadcaset is desired. they are typically sent to a large, geographically remote audience, where limited audience feedback is acceptable.
Virtual conferencing
Any meeting where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for two-way communication via satellite communications or the Internet. Each party sees and hears the other through a TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers.
Webconferencing
Web browser-based videoconferencing.
Whiteboarding
A feature of videoconferencing systems which allows the placement of shared documents on an on-screen shared space or "whiteboard." Participants can edit and mark up the document just as on a physical whiteboard.
2-D bar code
A larger-than-average bar code that uses the PDF417 standard (the same used for e-stamps). Stores up to 1,800 characters in bar code on standard paper badge, which can then be used by exhibitors to get contact information from registrants.
Advance registration
Booking before an event takes places. Allows attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place. Done through mail, phone, internet or fax. See PRE-REGISTRATION. See Also Pre-Registration
Credit card badge
A lead retrieval method using embossed plastic cards similar to credit cards.
Lead retrieval
The process whereby exhibitors receive a potential customer's contact information in a standardized manner. A system for capturing and following-up on leads generated at an exhibition.
Mag-stripe
Magnetic Stripe. A lead retrieval system using a magnetic strip on either the back of a paper badge (similar to some airline tickets) or on plastic badges similar to credit cards.
NCR form
Multi-page pressure-sensitive form where multiple copies are made by writing on the top copy of the form. NCR stands for No-Carbon Required.
Online registration
Registration made via the Web.
Pre-registration
1) Registering in advance to attend an event. See ADVANCE REGISTRATION. 2) At a facility, pre-assigned sleeping rooms available for occupancy. See Also Advance Registration
Secure digital certificate
An encrypted file that authenticates the source of financial data, usually for an online credit card transaction.
Smart card
A plastic credit card with an embedded integrated circuit chip that can store up to 16,000 bits of data for lead retrieval and other functions.
Smart form
A Web-based form that can be designed to guide the user through the process of completing the form and can alert the user to errors.
Attrition clause
Contract wording that outlines potential damages or fees that a party may be required to pay in the event that it does not fulfill minimum commitments in the contract.
Citywide event
An event that requires the use of a convention center or event complex, as well as multiple hotels in the host city.
Confirmation number
Proof of Registration, i.e., a reservation number that will be accepted by the hotel holding the room.
Cut-off date
Designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. The date is typically three to four weeks before the event. See RESERVATION REVIEW DATE. See Also Reservation Review Date
Deposit
An advanced partial payment to secure product or service.
Event-contracted block (ECB)
ECB. The rooms that are contracted for by an event organizer with a hotel(s) or housing facility(s) for a particular event.
Peripheral block
A group of rooms that is reserved by a party outside of the ECB but is present in the city as a result of the Main Event (for example, some exhibitors, some international tour groups). A Peripheral Block's consumed room nights should be credited to the Main Event's total room nights for historical tracking purposes. A Peripheral Block may be used to help offset attrition charges against the ECB A Peripheral Block usually negotiates its own terms (for example, 1/50, staff rate, etc.). How do you identify Peripheral Blocks? Event organizers should require each contracted housing facility to report (to the event organizer) what groups are in-house at the same time as the Main Event. Each housing facility should include tour and travel, and wholesalers' reservations which were booked individually over the dates of the Main Event. See also EVENT-CONTRACTED BLOCK. See Also Event-Contracted Block
Reservation review date
Designated day when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. See CUT-OFF DATE.
See Also Cut-Off Date
Room block
Total number of sleeping rooms that are utilized and attributable to one event. See Also Block
Rooming list
A list, whether printed or electronic, by which an event organizer and/or their designates (e.g. a housing bureau) delivers multiple reservations to a hotel or other housing facility. Often the information contained in a rooming list is originally gathered through attendees' completed Housing Forms. See Also HOUSING FORM. See Also Housing Form
Sub-block
Any group of rooms that is classified or separated differently than the general attendee block within the Event-Contracted Block (ECB). See also EVENT-CONTRACTED BLOCK.
See Also Event-Contracted Block
Copy editor
The person hired to review the content of advertising or marketing materials for consistency, accuracy, and to elminate repititious information.
Digital marketing
An electronic form of marketing communication that can be used as an element of an integrated marketing effort. Methods may include emailing digital brochures, delivering voice mail marketing, or sending video emails to the target audience.
Integrated marketing
Marketing activities with a common focus on the marketplace or a customer segment. The execution of each individual piece of the integrated marketing plan is consistent with, and supportive of, each of the other pieces of the plan.
Marketing
A process of identifying human wants and needs, and developing a plan to meet those wants and needs. Refers to everything involved with convincing an attendee to come to the event. Also refers to providing information to support the exhibit sales function.
Marketing collateral
The complete package of marketing materials used to promote an event such as brochures, emails, direct mail, etc. Organizations should consider developing a style sheet to ensure consistency across all marketing collateral.
Marketing plan
A writtten plan that's purpose is to define the market for an event, outline a strategy for attracting and keeping participants, and prepare to adapt to changes in the market. This working document guides decisions about how, when, and where to expend marketing resources.
Market segments
Categorization of people, organizations or businesses by professional discipline or primary areas of interest for the purposes of sales analysis or assignment.
Media relations
An ongoing effort by an organization to develop relationships with key media representatives before, during, and after an event.
Promotion
1) Publicizing an event. See PUBLICITY. 2) An advancement in rank or position. See Also Publicity
Publicity
A media campaign, normally consisting of a series of public notices and advertising activities, aimed at ensuring maximum attendance by focusing attention on an event. See PROMOTION. See Also Promotion
Press conference
Event held to communicate information to media representatives.
Press kit
A collection of publicity items that includes: 1) pertinent data on the meeting, such as agenda, historical data, guest speakers, special events, etc. The property, such as photos, descriptions of public space areas, local entertainment, etc. 2) information relative to a sponsor's products or services.
Press release
A prepared statement released to the news media. Can be "For immediate release," or at a specified time or date; an article intended for use by the media about a company, product, service, individual, or show. Also Called NEWS RELEASE.
Sponsorship
Donated financial or material support, usually in exchange for recognition; Paid opportunity for entity or an exhibitor to increase its visibility at the event.
Style
The style of a document refers to choices writers make that create the tone to readers. A writing style could be either formal or informal.
Style sheet
A list of special spellings, terms and style points to be used consistently in publications related to an event.
Tone
The tone of a document refers to the feeling or impression a document conveys. Formal writing style tends to convey an objective tone that is deliberate and factual. The toneo f an informal document typically is relaxed, informative, helpful, casual, positive, and personal.
Value proposition
A marketing plan should answer the question, What is the benefit to attending the event?
Trade-out
A type of barter. The exchange of goods and services instead of using money.
Dais
Raised platform usually above the floor of a hall or large room. See PODIUM. See Also RISER. See Also Podium Riser
Lectern
A stand upon which a speaker may rest notes or books. May be "standing," which rests on the floor, or "table-top" which is placed on a table. Often confused with PODIUM.
See Also Podium
Platform
Raised horizontal surface, stage, or flooring.
Quick set
Function room set-up that saves room turnover time, limits the number of event rooms required, and avoids additional charges for changing room set-ups.
Release date
Date beyond which a facility is free to rent the unused sleeping rooms or function space to other groups.
Riser
Raised platform. See DAIS. See Also PODIUM, CYCLORAMA. See Also Dais Podium Cyclorama
Rounded hollow square
A hollow square whose corners are replaced by serpentine or half-moon tables.
Schoolroom set-up
See CLASSROOM SET-UP. See Also Classroom Set-Up Seating arrangement in which rows of tables with chairs face the front of a room and each person has a space for writing. Also Called SCHOOLROOM SET-UP.
Straight-row seating
The standard seating supplied by most facilities. This kind of seating in wide rooms has the disadvantage of restricting the view of attendees sitting at the row ends. Best for presentations in which audience interaction is not required.
T-shape set-up
Series of tables set up in the shape of the block T with chairs set all around except at the head table.
Theater set-up
Seating arrangement in which seats are in rows facing the stage area, no tables. See AUDITORIUM SET-UP. See Also Auditorium Set-Up
Two-tiered set-up
A seating arrangement with a row of seats on low risers around a BOARDROOM SET-UP. A very space-intensive set-up. See Also Riser Boardroom Set-Up
U-shape set-up
Series of tables set up in the shape of the letter U with chairs set all around on one or both sides.
V-shape set-up
Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker. See HERRINGBONE SET-UP. See Also CHEVRON SET-UP. See Also Herringbone Set-Up Chevron Set-Up
Cluster
1) Enclosed lights used to illuminate the top of film and stage sets. 2) Group of speakers mounted in auditoriums, arenas, and theaters.
Computer data projection
The projection of a computer signal from a personal computer, laptop or other computer device onto a screen from a LCD or equivalent projector for viewing by audience.
See Also LCD
CYC
1) Platforms of varying heights used together to create a stage, such as the rows of steps a choral group would use during a performance. See DAIS. See Also RISER, PODIUM. 2) Stage background scene giving illusion or depth. Also called CYC. See Also Dais Riser Podium
DLP projector
Digital light processor data/video projectors were developed with an entirely new processor using microscopic mirrors to recreate video images and display them in a number of settings. These projectors picked up where LCD left off by reproducing video images with greater accuracy and a little less contrast, giving them a more natural look.
Digital video
Capture, manipulation and storage of video in digital format on a computer. Can be displayed on a computer as part of a graphic presentation.
Distributed speaker system
A speaker system that is typically used in ballrooms, exhibit hall venues, etc, and are most appropriate for voice reproduction.
DVCam
A popular digital format for meeetings with a good quality image, an extended recording time up to 184 minutes, with a tape stock that is less expensive than BetaSP.
Equalizer
Device used to compensate for undesired sound system characteristics or room acoustics.
Exclusive contractor
Contractor appointed by event or building management as the sole agent to provide specific services or products.
Feedback
1) Regeneration of sound from audio speakers back through a microphone causing a squealing sound. 2) Response about an activity, policy, or idea.
Flying
Raising and supporting sound, lighting or other equipment or décor from the ceiling.
Fresnel
Lens which produces a soft edged beam of light. Theatrical fixture with adjustable lens 150 W through 1500 W.
Front projection
FP. Projection of an image onto the front surface of a light reflecting screen from a projector placed within or behind the audience.
Gobo
A pre-cut, etched pattern fabricated from metal or glass that fits in the focal plane of a lighting instrument to form projected light into a shape (logo, graphic or even scenery). Templates can form light images on ceilings and walls. The pattern or template can be used in a projection type spotlight, to project decorative patterns on the walls. The "Bat" image from "Batman" is an example.
In-house contractor
Contractor retained by a facility to be on-site and provide services as needed. In some cases, Planners are not required to use their services, but may be charged a surcharge or facility fee for bringing in an outside contractor for the same service. See EXCLUSIVE CONTRACTOR. See Also Exclusive Contractor
Intelligent lighting
Lighting instruments that can be computer controlled to move light around the room, and project color and patterns on screens, scenery, walls or floor.
Lavaliere microphone
A wired or wireless microphone that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a NECKLACE, LAPEL, or PENDANT MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
LCD projector
A self-contained unit with a LCD (liquid crystal display) panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up. See DATA PROJECTOR. See Also Data Projector LCD
Lectern microphone
MICROPHONE attached to a lectern. See LECTERN.
See Also Microphone Lectern
LED
Light Emitting Diode. A solid-state diode rectifier whose atomic properties cause it to emit light when electric current is passed through it. Current LED technology allows the emission of light from infrared through green frequencies, and visible light LEDs are available in colors from deep red to green.
Leko
Type of adjustable spotlight used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See ELLIPSOIDAL SPOTLIGHT. See Also LECTERN.
See Also Ellipsoidal Spotlight Lectern
Line array
The newest development in audio systems that can take traditional distributed systems, which require delay speakers to be hung throughout the room, to a new level. The advantage is that you can cover a room from a single line of speakers over the rest of the venue, saving time and labor costs.
Line level
Average (power) level at which a signal is output from devices like mixers, cassette decks and other devices which process sound. Technically, this corresponds to -30 dBM (one microwatt) to +30 dBM (one watt).
Mic level
An audio signal generated by a microphone.
Mixer
Audio unit by which sound signals from all sources feed into one system; allows for dissimilar inputs (microphone and line) to be combined and controlled into one output. See SOUND BOARD. See Also Sound Board
Omnidirectional microphone
MICROPHONE that picks up sound from all directions.
See Also Microphone
Overhead
Equipment which projects an image on a screen by passing light through a transparent slide or other transparency.
PAR
1) Common term for sealed beam spot or flood lamp with self-contained lens surfaced glass. 2) In golf, one less than bogey.
Platform
Raised horizontal surface, stage, or flooring.
Projector
An apparatus for projecting a picture on a screen. Whether the device is an overhead projector, data (LCD) projector, slide projector, or a film projector, it is usually referred to as simply a projector. See Also LCD
Rear projection
Movie, slide, or computer image presentation where the screen is between the viewer and the projector. Often used in terms of a FRONT PROJECTION SCREEN which is translucent to images being projected from the rear and can be viewed from the front.
Resolution
1) Ability of a projection system to distinguish and reproduce fine detail. 2) Motion put forward for a joint decision; usually has the force of a legislative decision.
Scoop
Large theatrical floodlight usually used for work lights or occasionally in place of strip lights to light a cyclorama or sky drop.
Slide
Apparatus used for projecting photographic slides onto a screen. It will often have a remote (either wired or wireless) that can be used to advance the slides.
Stacked speaker system
A type of audio system for meetings and concerts. The speakers sit on the floor and project from each side of the room. The sound may be louder in the front than the back.
Ultraviolet lighting
A black light used to make phosphorescent and fluorescent paints glow in the dark.
VHS
Video Home System. Video tape recorder and player utilizing ½-inch (1.27 centimeter) tape. Not compatible with beta format.
Wireless microphone
Portable MICROPHONE operating on its own power source. Often used to pass through an audience for questions or comments. Also Called WIRELESS MICROPHONE.
See Also Microphone
Video projection
Casting video images on monitors or on large screen.
American Plan (Full American Plan)
AP. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN. See Also Inclusive Rate Bermuda Plan Continental Plan Demi-Pension European Plan Modified American Plan
American service
Food is plated in the kitchen and placed before the guest. Side dishes are used for bread and butter and salad. Food is served from the left, beverages from the right, and all items are removed from the right. This is generally the service used for banquets. See PLATED SERVICE. See Also Plated Service
Buffet
Assortment of foods, offered on a table, self-served.
Butler service
1) Servers offer a variety of both hot and cold hors d'oeuvres on platters to guests at receptions. 2) A style of table service where guests serve themselves from platters presented by the server. 3) Specialized in-room service offered by a hotel.
Cafeteria service
A food service operation in which customers carry their own trays and select food from a display counter or counters. It is similar to a buffet, but food is served by attendants.
Cash bar
Private room bar set up where guests pay for drinks individually.
Caterer
1) A food service vendor, often used to describe a vendor who specializes in banquets and theme parties. 2) An exclusive food & beverage contractor within a facility.
Catering manager
Staff person responsible for selling and servicing group and local food and beverage functions.
Combination bar
This beverage service includes both cash-bar and open-bar concepts. Guests are issued a certain number of tickets for free drinks and are then required to purchase additional drinks if desired.
Continental breakfast
Light morning meal consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages. Usually served buffet style.
Covers
Actual number of meals served at a catered meal function or in a restaurant. See AUDIENCE COUNT. See Also HEAD COUNT. See Also Audience Count Head Count
Dram shop laws
In the United States, a legal term for laws covering the liability of people serving alcoholic beverages. Under dram shop laws, a party injured by an intoxicated person can sue establishments contributing to that person's intoxication. Many dram shop laws also cover serving alcohol to a minor.
French banquet service
Platters of food are composed in the kitchen. Each food item is then served from the guest's left by the server from platters to individual plates. Any course can be 'Frenched' by having the dressing put on the salad or having sauce added to a entrée or dessert after it has been placed in front of the guest. See FRENCH SERVICE - CART STYLE. See Also French Service - Cart Style
French cart service
This pattern of service involves the use of serving pieces (usually silver); heating and garnishing of food table-side by a captain; and the serving of food on a heated plate, which is then served to the guest by a server. Plated entrees are usually served from the right, bread and butter and salad from the left and beverages from the right. All are removed from the right. See FRENCH SERVICE - BANQUET STYLE. See Also French Service - Banquet Style
Full-service breakfast
Attendees are usually seated at one time. A combination fo pre-set and plated service is featured. A speaker or program may be planned.
Gratuity
A voluntary payment added to a bill (e.g. a restaurant check), to signify good service. See SERVICE CHARGE. See Also Service Charge
Modified American Plan
MAP. A type of room rate that includes breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See DEMI-PENSION. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, EUROPEAN PLAN. See Also Demi-Pension American Plan Bermuda Plan Continental Plan European Plan
Open bar (host bar)
Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks. See HOST BAR. See Also SPONSORED BAR.
See Also Host Bar Sponsored Bar
Pre-set
Placing plated foods on banquet tables prior to seating guests.
On consumption
A term used in food and beverage that refers to the purchasing option based on the amount utilized by the group. The organization pays for the food and beverage based on the actual food and beverage served.
Russian banquet service
1) Banquet Russian: The food is fully prepared in the kitchen. All courses are served either from platters or an escoffier dish. Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salad. The server places the proper plate in front of the guest. After the plates are placed, the server returns with a tray of food and, moving counter-clockwise around the table, serves the food from the guest's left with the right hand. With this style of service, the server controls the amount served to each guest. See BUTLER SERVICE. 2) Restaurant Russian: Foods are cooked at tableside. Servers put them on platters and present platters to guests seated at dining tables. Guests serve themselves. See Also Butler Service
Russian restaurant service
Foods are cooked tableside. Servers put the food on platters and present themt ot he seated guests who serve themselves. Russian service requires sufficient space between tables for the servers to move about freely.
Service charge
1) A mandatory and automatic amount added to standard food and beverage charges, usually used to defray the cost of labor, such as housemen, servers, technicians, etc. and which the facility receives a portion of the charge. In return, the guest is relieved the responsibility for tipping. 2) A fee charged to a client by a travel agent in addition to the commissions paid to him or her by his or her principals. See GRATUITY.
See Also Gratuity
Social host
The organization providing alcohol to guests.
Tip
A voluntary and selective amount of money, given at will for special or excellent service.
Association of Destination Management Executives (ADME)
Association of Destination Management Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Arrival pattern
Anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Certificate of insurance
A document provided by an insurance company as proof that a policy has been issued and coverage is in effect.
Charter
1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) To create a new association, organization or chapter of an association or organization.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other's duty or a remedy for the breach of the other's duty. See COMMITMENT. See Also LETTER OF AGREEMENT. See Also Commitment Letter of Agreement
Manifest
Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel.
Meet and greet
Service for meeting and greeting a person upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier or rail station and assisting him or her with entrance formalities, collecting baggage and obtaining transportation.
Official carrier
Airline company designated airline of choice for an event in exchange for special rates or services.
Productivity ticket
Complimentary tickets awarded by the official airline after the event according to the number of attendees who used the airline.
Schedule of services
Pre-program information distributed to tour guides, field representatives, venues or vendors, regarding the details of their program assignment for a given event or program.
Shuttle service
Transportation for participants; usually by coach or van, provided on a continuous basis for a certain time period.
Transfer
1) Process of moving equipment and/or people from one point to another. 2) Transportation between terminals and hotels. 3) To copy a picture or sound that is transmitted by one recorder to another, or to make a tape copy from film.
Travel agency
AKA Group Travel Agency. Company specializing in planning and handling group travel.
Zone fare
Unpublished rates offered from the areas of the U.S. and Canada to specified event destinations; they do not require Saturday night stay over.
Air waybill
A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING. See Also Air Consignment Note Bill of Lading Inland Bill of Lading Ocean Bill of Lading Through Bill of Lading
Advance warehouse
The storage location that general service contractors for exhibitions will establish for early receipt of freight.
Carrier
1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) Transportation contractor moving passengers or freight (van line, common carrier, rail car, airplane).
Common carrier
Transportation company which handles crated materials; an agency or business that is available to the public for transportation of persons, goods, or messages; usually referring to freight transportation on regularly scheduled trucks or airplanes.
Customs
1) The governmental authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection. 2) Practices common to many of a particular group.
Customs broker
An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country. In the United States, a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law.
Decorator
An individual or company providing installation & dismantle and booth/stand and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors. Decorator services may be provided by carpenters, sign painters or others depending upon union jurisdiction. Term applies to both contractor and skilled craftsperson. See Also I&D
Dimensional weight
Generally refers to air-freight and van line shipments. Invoices are calculated with two weights, actual and dimensional. The dimensional weight is based upon the volume of the shipment. The billing weight is the larger of the two.
Exhibit house
Company that fabricates displays. See SHOP. See Also DISPLAY BUILDER. See Also Shop Display Builder
Exhibition manager
Preferred term for the specific person responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting, and producing an exhibition. Also Called SHOW MANAGER, SHOW ORGANIZER. See SHOW MANAGEMENT. See Also Show Management
Hand carry
Items that an exhibitor is allowed to carry unaided into a event facility without being charged.
Hundredweight (CWT)
Abbreviation for "hundred weight." This is the unit of measure used in drayage and freight shipments.
Less than truckload
LTL. Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume of truckload minimum weight.
Lot labeling
Sequential numbering as part of a total number of pieces indicated on each package, carton, or crate. For example, box number 2 of 12.
Marshalling yard
A holding area where trucks or buses check in and wait for instructions before delivering or picking up freight or passengers.
Material handling
Services performed by GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crating, and delivering materials back to the dock for carrier loading. It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing. Formerly known as DRAYAGE.
Packing list
A list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
Pallet
Wooden platform used to carry goods. See SKID.
See Also Skid
Pad-wrapped
See BLANKET WRAP. Non-crated freight shipped via van line covered with protective blankets or padding.
Pro number
Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred. Usually assigned at once.
Skid
1) Pallet. 2) Wooden platform used to support machinery or a collection of objects for easier handling. 3) Thick wood blocks attached to crates which allow forklift access for easier handling. 4) Wood runners protecting the exterior of a shipping case.
Target date
A date set by event management and/or general service contractor for the arrival of freight at a trade event. Usually shipments received before or after this date are assessed a penalty charge.
Truckload
Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
Van line
Carrier that specializes in shipping uncrated exhibits, high-tech equipment and delicate materials that require special handling.
Audit
A methodical examination and review of records pertaining to an event. For instance, an independent verification of attendance figures submitted by an exhibition's producers.
Backwall
1) The back wall (either hardwall or draped) of a perimeter, booth/stand/exhibit, or inline. 2) Panel arrangement at rear of booth/stand area.
Exhibitor Advisory Committee
Representatives of an event's exhibiting companies who act as advisers to show management on rules and procedures, and also update show management on industry trends and issues.
Booth
One or more standard units of exhibit space. In the US, a standard unit is generally known to be a 10' x 10' space (one standard booth/stand unit, equaling 100 nsf). However, if an exhibitor purchases multiple units side-by-side or back-to-back, the combined space is also still referred to as a BOOTH or a STAND. Specific area assigned by management to exhibitor under contractual agreement. See STAND.
See Also Stand
Exhibitor-appointed contractor (EAC)
EAC. Any company other than the designated "official" contractor providing a service to an exhibitor. Can refer to an Install & Dismantle Company (I&D House), photographer, florist or any other type of contractor. See Also I&D
Exhibitor prospectus
Direct mail promotional materials sent to current and prospective exhibitors to encourage participation and promote the benefits of exhibiting in a specific show. Contains information about technical points, cost of exhibition space, floor plan of the exhibition and application for participation.
Exhibitor service manual
Manual or kit, usually developed by the service contractor for an event, containing general event information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor's participation in an exhibition.
Floor plan
1) Schematic drawing of an exhibit hall including dimensions, design, shape, entrances, aisles, numbered exhibit booth/stands, lounges, concession areas, restrooms, electrical/plumbing accessibility, etc. 2) Scale plan of the floor area of a hotel's event space. 3) Schematic drawing of a function room with specific requirements (dais, tables, chairs, etc.) drawn to scale.
Hardwall
A type of exhibit construction in which the walls are of solid material, rather than fabric.
Installation and dismantle (I&D)
I&D. 1) The set-up and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work. See ERECTION. See Also Erection
Island booth
Booth/stand space with aisles on all four sides.
Linear booth
Linear exhibits are generally 10' deep. They are offered in 10' or 15' widths and can be combined to create an exhibit of almost any length.
Material handling (formerly drayage)
Services performed by GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crating, and delivering materials back to the dock for carrier loading. It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing. Formerly known as DRAYAGE.
Minimum labor call
Minimum amount for which union labor must be paid.
Outboarding
When a company contracts space at a hotel or other adjacent venue to display their products and meet with exhibition attendees without paying show management for booth space or sponsorship fees.
Peninsula booth
An exhibit with aisles on three sides.
Overtime
Time worked by an employee outside of, or in addition to, regular working time or beyond the standard forty-hour workweek.
Pipe & drape
Light-weight aluminum tubing and drapery used to separate exhibit booths/stands, staging areas, and other similar locations.
Priority point system
System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space for the next event first. Also Called PRIORITY RATING SYSTEM.
Sales lead
Names and contact information of potential customers. Attendee lists are often provided as sales leads to exhibitors as an incentive to participate in an exhibition.
Set-up
1) Way in which a function room is arranged. 2) Erecting displays, installation, or, articles in their assembled condition. 3) Mixers, fruit, and glassware accompanying a liquor order.
See Also Floor Plan
Space assignment
Booth/stand space assigned to exhibiting companies or meeting rooms assigned to event groups.
Specialty contractor
A supplier of a specific event service, such as photography, rental of furniture or audiovisual equipment, or floral decoration.
Straight time
Labor performed and paid at standard rate for work during normal business hours as established by unions. See ST LABOR. See Also ST Labor
Business casual
A style of dress that is less formal than the standard office attire of suit and tie or dress.
Suitcasing
When a company tries to sell its product or service on the show floor without the permission or consent of the event's management.
Unopposed exhibit hours
Exhibit hours that do not overlap other programming, which encourages attendees to visit the exhibition and increases the value for exhibitors.
Etiquette
A manner of behavior that touches all elements of communication and the way that we interact with customers and colleagues.
Casual attire
Sports shirt (possibly with jacket) for men; resort wear for women.
Protocol
1) Customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette. 2) A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers must follow to exchange messages.
B2B
Business-to-Business.
Bid
1) A statement of what one will give or take in return for something else (a price); proposal. 2) Proposal submitted by a convention & visitors bureau and/or hotel(s) to an event organizer that includes defined dates and room blocks.
Complimentary
Comp. Service, space or item provided at no charge.
Concession
1) Merchandise or refreshments sold on site, to individuals, in conjunction with an event. 2) Contractual agreement where one party provides something of value to the other party in exchange for something else, pending certain conditions.
Conflict of interest statement
Written document requiring individuals to disclose any conflicts of interest that may be created by their involvement with an organization.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other's duty or a remedy for the breach of the other's duty. See COMMITMENT. See Also LETTER OF AGREEMENT. See Also Commitment Letter of Agreement
Professional
Relating to organizations whose membership hold common occupational credentials or interests.