Network+ Chapter 2
Terms in this set (45)
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring protocol.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI, /ˈænsiː/ AN-see) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
Internet Control Message Protocol is a message control and error-reporting protocol between a host server and a gateway to the Internet.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunications protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in 1982.
User Datagram Protocol - With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server.
Simple Network Management Protocol is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks". Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks and more. You can use it for remote connection and configurations.
Any device that can run a small software component that facilitates communication with an SNMP manager.
Includes authentication and encryption.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network.
Device/OSI Layer#: Hub, Bridge, Switch, Router, NIC & AP (Access Point)
Hub - Layer 1
Bridge - Layer 2
Switch - Layer 2 or 3
Router - Layer 3
NIC - Layer 2
AP - Layer 2
Data delivery is guaranteed. The sending device re-sends any packet that the destination system does not receive. High overhead and bandwidth.
Information is just sent, but there is no confirmation that the data has been received. Less overhead & primarily popular with audio or video streaming.
Internet Protocol - used to transport data from one node on a network to another. Connectionless. Performs fragmentation and reassembly tasks because the maximum transmission unit size is limited. IP operates at the network layer, layer 3, of the OSI model.
Transmission Control Protocol - A connection-oriented and transport protocol that establishes a mutually acknowledged session between two hosts before communication takes place. It provides reliability through added features such as flow control, sequencing and error detection & correction. TCP operates at the transport layer, layer 4.
How TCP works
TCP three-way handshake:
1. Sends SYN message to target host
2. Target host opens a connection for the request and sends back an ACK or SYN ACK (acknowledgement).
3. Original host sends back another ACK saying it has received the ACK & data transfer is ready to happen.
4. Similar process used to close the session.
ls, lcd, cd, put, get, mput, mget, binary, ascii
lists files, changes the working directory on local host, changes directory on remote host, uploads single file to remote host, downloads single file to remote host, uploads multiple files, downloads multiple files, switches transfers to binary & switches transfer to ascii.
Secure File Transfer Protocol - software that is secure & encrypted.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol - Uses UDP, not secure, no command transfer.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - A mail transfer protocol that uses TCP & requires the host to always be available. The client spools the email to read later. Can be used to send and receive mail. POP3 & IMAP can only receive.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - enables text, graphics & multimedia to be downloaded from a server. Connection-oriented protocol that uses TCP.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure - Uses Secure Socket Layers (SSL) to keep requests secure through encryption.
IMAP4 vs. POP3
Internet Message Access Protocol 4 & Post Office Protocol 3 differ in that IMAP is more secure. Both only receive email.
Used to set up a remote connection on any system. Now really used for Unix & Linux systems. Not secure.
Secure Shell - More secure alternative to Telnet. SSH1 & SSH2 (2 more secure).
Internet Control Message Protocol - Works with IP layer to provide error checking and reporting functionality. Ping utility is ICMP. Also utilizes source quench to slow down send rate from sender so that packets are not dropped.
Class A: 1-126; Size of network bit field = 8; Number of networks = 128; Hosts per network = 16,777,214; Default subnet mask = 255.0.0.0
Class B: 128-191; Size of network bit field = 16; Number of networks = 16,384; Hosts per network = 65,534; Default subnet mask = 255.255.0.0
Class C: 192 - 223; Size of network bit field = 24; Number of networks = 2,097,152; Hosts per network = 254; Default subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
Physical: hardware & topology
Data Link: responsible for getting data to the physical layer. Also responsible for error detection, error correction & hardware addressing. MAC addressed at this layer. Logical Link Control also in this layer.
Logical Link Control
Responsible for error & flow-control mechanisms.
Network Layer: routing - providing the mechanisms to pass data from one network to another. Also determines route selection. Routes configured statically or dynamically.
Transport Layer: Provide mechanisms to transport data between network devices. Done 3 ways - error checking, service addressing and segmentation. Also responsible for data flow control through buffering or windowing.
Session Layer: managing and controlling the synchronization of data between applications on two devices. Sets up, maintains and breaks connection on behalf of the application.
Presentation Layer: Converts data intended for or received from the application layer into another format. Some common formats include graphics files (JPEG), text and data and sound/video (MPEG). Also handles encryption.
Application Layer: takes requests and data from users and passes to lower layers of the OSI model. Some basic services include file and print capabilities.
Performed name resolution in the early days of the Internet. Still available in most platforms if you need to resolve hosts that won't be changing.
Domains = .com, .edu, .or and so on; Sub domains = second-level domains with organizations or commercial companies such as Microsoft;
Fully Qualified Domain Name - domain name along with any sub domains.
IP address-to-hostname resolution. Accomplished using PTR records.
Name resolution on a Windows network so that systems can locate and access each other by using NetBIOS computer name rather than the IP address.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - Assigns IP addresses within a scope for a leased period. You can also configure it to apply a specific address to a client (reservation).
Benefits to DHCP
1) Admins do not need to configure manually; 2) No human error leading to duplicate IP addresses; 3)No need to reconfigure if a system moves to a different subnet mask.
Cons to DHCP
1) DHCP traffic is broadcast based and can cause traffic; 2) DHCP sever software must be installed and configured on a server, which can place additional processor load.
DHCPDISCOVER sent out. DHCP server picks it up & compares it with the scope. Sends info to to client (DHCPOFFER packet). Client notifies the offer has been accepted through DHCPREQUEST. Server notifies client with an acknowledgement (DHCPACK). DHCP can also provide DNS suffixes to clients.
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