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Biology Flashcards

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Atom
basic unit of matter
Nucleus
center of atom
electron
negative charged particle
element
substance of atom
isotopes
One of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Compound
composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients
Ionic Bond
the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons.
Ions
An atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons
Covalent bond
the bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.
Molecule
the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.
Van Der Waals forces
weak, nonspecific forces between molecules.
Cohesion
the molecular force between particles within a body or substance that acts to unite them
Adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substance
Mixture
when 2 or more elements/compounds are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Solution
state of being dissolved.
Solute
A substance that is dissolved in another substance (a solvent), forming a solution.
Solvent
a substance that dissolves another to form a solution: Water is a solvent for sugar.
Suspension
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
pH scale
provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and greater than 7 is more basic and less than 7 is more acidic);
Acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution
Base
compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution
Buffers
weak acids/base that can react with strong acids and bases and prevents strong sharp sudden changes
Monomers
small units that can join together with other small units to form polymers
polymers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Carbohydrates
Compounds made up ofcarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
Monosaccarides
single sugar molecules
Polysaccarides
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccrides
Lipids
Made from carbon and hydrogen atoms. includes fats, oils and waxes
nucleic acids
macromollecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
nucleotides
monomers of nucleic acids made up of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
proteins
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
amino acids
compound with an amino group
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into anther set of chemicals
reactants
element of compound that enters into a chemical reaction
products
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
substnances that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzymes
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
substrates
reactant of an enzym-catalyzed reaction