Upgrade to remove ads
AP Human Geography Unit 2: Population and Migration
Terms in this set (103)
What are population clusters?
areas where large numbers of people live
Where do most populations sit and why?
Next to sources of water because of farming, transportation, and food sources (hunting, fishing)
What are the four major population clusters?
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southeast Asia.
Why do people live in population clusters?
Climate, soil, and water
What are the top five most populated countries?
What is demography?
the scientific study of characteristics of population clusters
What is overpopulation?
a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
How are humans distributed across the Earth (uniformly or not uniformly)?
What are the other population clusters?
Northeast USA, West Africa, Central Europe
What is a census?
A complete enumeration of a population.
What is ecumene?
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
What are the four sparsely populated regions?
dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands (mountains)
What is arithmetic (crude) density?
divide total population by area
What is physiological density?
people/ mi^2 arable land
divide total population by arable land area
What is agricultural density?
farmers/ mi^2 of arable land
divide number of farmers by arable land area
What is arable land?
land available for agriculture
What does CBR stand for and what does it mean?
Crude Birth Rate
Number of live birth a year per 1000 ppl
What does CDR stand for and what does it mean?
Crude Death Rate
Number of deaths in a year per 1000 ppl
What does NIR stand for, what does it mean, and how do you caclculate it?
- Natural Increase Rate
- Percentage by which a population grows in a year
- Convert CBR and CDR from out of 1000 to out of 100 then subtract CDR from CBR
What does TFR stand for, what does it mean, and how is it calculated?
- Total Fertility Rate
- average number of children a woman will have in her childbearing years
- scientist assume that a woman reaching a particular age will have the same number of children as a woman already of that particular age
What is doubling rate?
Time it takes for a population to double in size
Do LDCs or MDCs tend to have higher NRIs?
What does IMR stand for and what does it mean?
Infant Mortality Rate
Annual number of deaths of infants under 1 compared to total number of live births
What is a population pyramid?
show percentage of males and females by age in a country
What is dependency ratio?
those people who are too young or old to work or reproduce
What is sex ratio?
ratio of men to women
What types of countries have high NRIs and why?
LDCs because they have higher CBRs
How would agricultural density differ from MDC's vs LDC's?
LDCs would have a higher agricultural density bc there are more farmers than people living developed areas
Why does stage one of the DTM have low growth and what kind of societies are in stage one?
- CBR: high (lack of family planning/ contraception)
- CDR: high (lack of healthcare and sanitation; war, famine, and natural disaster)
- Low growth b/c of high birth and death rates
- Hunter-gatherer societies; Pre-Neolithic Revolution; Pre-Industrial
- No country today is in stage one
*Know what stage 1 pop. pyramid and graph looks like
Why does stage two of the DTM have slow growth and what kind of societies are in stage two?
- CBR: high (lack of family planning/ contraception)
- CDR: rapid decline (better healthcare, nutrition, and sanitation)
- Population still slow growth b/c of high infant mortality rates
- Industrialization, large family size and high IMR; early transition
- LDCs (agricultural societies)
*Know what stage 2 graph looks like
Why does stage three of the DTM have high growth and what kind of societies are in stage three?
- CBR: rapid decline (contraception and family planning)
- CDR: continues to decline (continued improvements in healthcare)
- Pop. grows more rapidly
- Urbanization; family size decreases as IMR drops; late transition
- Developing countries; merging to stage 4 countries (Ex. Vietnam)
*Know what stage 3 graph looks like
Why does stage four of the DTM have low growth and what kind of societies are in stage four?
- CBR: stabilizes; low
- CDR: stabilizes; low
- Pop: stabilizes; low
- Sexual equality; family size continues to drop as IMR continues to drop
- MDCs; industrialized countries (Ex. US, Britain)
*Know what stage 4 graph looks like
Why does stage five of the DTM have no growth and what kind of societies are in stage five?
- CBR: slight if any increase
- CDR: slight increase
- Pop. begins to decrease
- Family size continues to fall; aging pop; post-industrial
*Know what stage 5 pop. pyramid and graph looks like
What is the medical revolution and what was its role in the DTM?
Medical tech invented in North America and Europe diffused to LDCs in late twentieth century; pushing them into Stage 2
What is does ZPG stand for and what stage does it occur in?
Zero population growth
What are some reasons birth rates are declining?
- Women enter labor force rather than stay at home
- More access to contraception (birth control, condoms, etc.)
- People are waiting to have kids until later b/c they want to focus on education/ career, travel, attend cultural events, etc.
What did Thomas Malthus argue?
pop. was growing more rapidly than food and other resources
pop. grows geometrically while food grows arithmetically
What were flaws in the Malthusian population predictions?
- Growth is uneven around the world
- Resources (especially food) continue to grow and keep up w/ human demands
- New types of governments and economies
- Distribution of wealth vs. food
What do critics of the Malthusian hypothesis argue?
- Malthusian beliefs are pessimistic b/c he states that our supply of resources are fixed instead of expanding (possibilism vs determinism)
- population growth can have more benefits than problems (larger workforce, more economic growth, more production of food)
What is life expectancy?
The average a number of years a newborn can expect to live at current mortality levels.
What is epidemiology?
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect a large number of people
What is the epidemiological transition?
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
How does the epidemiological transition correlate with the DTM (stages)?
- Stage 1: infectious and parasitic diseases (black plague)
- Stage 2: receding pandemics from rapidly declining CDR (cholera in poor, crowded urban areas)
- Stage 3: Degenerative Diseases from moderately declining CDR (chronic disorders as a result from aging)
- Stage 4: Delayed Degenerative Diseases from low but increasing CDR (degenerative diseases can be removed/ treated due to medical advancements)
- Stage 5: reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases (antibacterial resistant microbes, pesticide resistant disease carrying insects)
What is a pandemic?
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
What is migration?
permanent move to a new location
What is the difference between emigration and immigration?
Emigration is the move out of a country and immigration is the move into a country
What is net migration?
difference between the number of emigrants and the number of immigrants
What are the three main reasons people migrate?
Economic opportunity, cultural freedom, and environmental comfort.
What are Ravenstein's Laws of Migration?
- most migrants travel short distances (by foot, auto, or train)
- most migrants travel from rural to urban areas (hierarchy- small to big)
- most migrants are single, young males (families rarely migrate)
What is a refugee?
people who have been forced to flee their home country b/c of persecution by the government; usually has some legal rights and freedoms
What was the Industrial Revolution and how does it relate to the DTM?
- conjunction of major improvements in manufacturing goods and delivering them to markets
- During Industrial Revolution, Europe and North America entered stage 2 of DTM
What is international migration?
permanent move from one country to another
Can be voluntary or forced
What is internal migration?
permanent move within the same country
What is interregional migration?
movement from one region of a country to another
What is intraregional migration?
movement within a region
What are the three largest migration patterns today?
- Asia to Europe
- Asia to North America
- Latin America to North America
What are the three main eras of immigration within the U.S.?
- 1600- mid 1800s: colonization and slavery
- Late 1800s- early 1900s
- 1950s- present: from Latin America and Asia
What is the principle type of interregional migration today?
rural areas to urban areas
What is the Trail of Tears and how does it relate to forced migration?
Trail of Tears was the removal of Indian cultures that was forced by the government
How does Stage 1 of the DTM relate to migration?
high daily or seasonal mobility in search of food
How does Stage 2 of the DTM relate to migration?
high international emigration and interregional migration from rural to urban areas
How does Stage 3 of the DTM relate to migration?
high international immigration and intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
How does Stage 4 of the DTM relate to migration?
high international immigration and intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
How did Brazil encourage interregional migration?
They built a new capital, Brasilia, in the interior of Brazil
WHat percent of the US population is currently living in urban areas?
Why do most people move from rural to urban areas?
Why do people move to the suburbs in MDCs?
They are moving from the city to the suburbs for a lifestyle rather than a job
What kind of countries (LDCs or MDCs) does counterurbanization occur in and what is counterurbanization?
- net migration from urban areas to rural areas
What are push factors?
factors that make ppl want to leave their country (crime, poverty, war, natural disaster, disease, etc.)
What are pull factors?
something that draws ppl to a new country (better wages, better climate, etc.)
Why do people migrate for political reasons?
want to escape from war, political conflict
Why do people migrate for environmental reasons?
people are pulled towards physically attractive regions and pushed from hazardous ones
Why do people migrate for economic reasons?
want better economic opportunities and better jobs
What does IDP stand fro and what is an IDP?
Internally displaced person
similar to a refugee but did not cross an international border
What is an asylum seeker?
someone who has migrated to another country in hopes of being recognized as a refugee; few legal rights and freedoms; in limbo
What are guest workers?
People allowed to migrate temporarily to Europe for work, but not be citizens; however, they eventually became citizens
What are intervening obstacles and what are some examples?
any feature that hinders migration (closed borders, physical features, etc)
What are quotas?
setting a limit on the number of migrants; overall and per country
What is brain drain?
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
What is chain migration?
Migration of people to a specific location because members of the same nationality previously emigrated there
What are undocumented immigrants?
People who enter a country without proper documentation
How did the Industrial Revolution impact population?
pop. moved from rural to urban
What are immigration concerns in the U.S.?
- want better enforcement of current laws
- more presence of a border patrol
- less money going to a wall/ fence
- support deporting undocumented immigrants, but want to see a path to citizenship for workers, families, and law-abiding people
What are the common characteristics of migrants?
young, single males who travel a short distance
Is the Rate of Natural Increase higher or lower in LDCs? Why?
higher TFR and CBR due to lack of contraception and family planning
What are intervening opportunities and give examples?
when a solution presents itself sooner/ closer than the original goal/ destination
Where were the largest numbers of refugees in 2010 from?
Afghanistan and Iraq bc of wars. Surrounding countries accepted a majority of the refugees.
What is the difference between a migrant and a refugee?
Migrants often migrate for economic reasons while refugees migrate to escape deadly situations (war, famine, persecution)
What does CMR stand for and what does it mean?
Child Mortality Rate
Probability per 1000 live births that the child will die before reaching the age of 5
Describe population patterns in Russia.
Russia government tried to get people to migrate to resource rich Far North, but many people were wary due to harsh climate. Most ppl who moved there moved back to pop clusters east of Ural Mtns.
Describe the U.S. population center in 1790.
Pop center hugging Atlantic Coast
-colonists are still dependent on trade routes with Europe
-Appalachians are blocking westward mvmt
-Indians resisted westward mvmt
Describe the U.S. population center in 1840.
Crossing the Appalachians
- Construction of canals makes travel cheaper
- Cheap land
- Plentiful Natural Resources (trees)
Describe the U.S. population center in 1890.
Midwest, Eastern Indiana
Ppl rush past Great Plains due to the dry climate, lack of trees, and the Gold Rush
Describe the U.S. population center from 1900-1940.
Westward mvmt of pop. center slows
- Great Plains are farmed
- Emigration from Europe to East Coast offsets western internal migration
- Railroad companies help increase pop. in Great Plains
Describe the U.S. population center from 1950-2000.
Westward mvmt speeds back up and turns South
- Job opportunities in South
- Warm climate in South
How is Canada's internal migration similar to the U.S.?
moving from east to west
How do countries move through the DTM?
Medical Advancements, Urbanization, Industrialization, Education
What does the R vs K selection theory state?
Some organisms will aim for exponential growth while others are content reproducing enough to meet the carrying capacity.
What are r-selected species?
high rate of population growth
What are K-selected species?
organisms that reproduce only a few times in their lifetime, but invest in them very heavily
What are limiting factors?
factors that limit the growth of a population
What did Leeuwenhoek do?
first modern scientist to propose the germ theory. revolutionized human health
What are Ravenstein's Laws for distance migrants travel to new homes?
- Migrants will travel a short distance and remain within the country
- If migrants travel a long distance (international), they will head to major centers of economic activity
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Human Geography Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and P…
AP Human Geography Unit 4: Political Organization…
Unit 4 Political Geography
AP Human Geography Unit 1: Geography- Its Nature a…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Unit 4: Population and Migration Vocabulary
AP HUG: Chapter 2
Unit 2 Key Terms and Concepts AP Hug
HGAP UNIT TWO: POPULATION AND MIGRATION
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
APUSH Period 2 Vocab
APUSH AMSCO Period 1 Vocab
AP Psych: Module 56
AP Psych: Module 55