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Romanticism And 19th Century Society
Terms in this set (82)
Second industrial revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements., Movement of people from rural areas to cities.
Public health movement
Sought to remedy the high disease and mortality rate that occurred in cities. People sought to sanitize cities by creating sewage systems and cleaning up the environment., British discovered that decaying organic matter caused illness and death and started developing sewers and indoor plumbing, insect and rodent control., Based on the principle of preventive rather than curative medicine. Largely a response to the cholera epidemic.
English investigator of mass corruption in regard to English burial practices who recommended that cemetaries be municipalized and that religious rites be simplified and standardized in 1842., This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses., Developed the sewer system in England and was an application of Calculus of Felicity., An Urban Reformer who wanted to eliminating poverty and squalor of metropolitian areas. He was the secreatary of the poor law commision and intiated a passionate search for the living conditions of the poor.
invented by Edwin Chadwick. disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment., Chadwick's belief that cleanliness stops disease. Proposed clean, piped water as a solution to the filth problem., The great preventives, drainage, street and house cleansing by means of supplies of water and improved sewage, and especially the introduction of cheaper and more efficient modes of removing all noxious refuse from the towns, are operations for which aid must be sought from the science of the engineer, not from the physician.
Georges Von Haussmann
redeveloped Paris: · Wide boulevards (partially to prevent barricades) · Better middle-class housing on the outskirts of the city · Demolition of slums · Creation of parks and open spaces., An aggressive, impatient Alsatian whom Napoleon III placed in charge of Paris, Rebuilt much of Paris, demolished slums, wide boulevards, new system of aqueducts doubles fresh water supply and 400 miles of underground sewers were built.
Fin de siècle
"End of a century," mostly applied to the end of the nineteenth century (1890s). Artists and authors attempted to abandon old techniques and discover new ones.
name for positive view of the 1870s (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theartres, education, universal male suffrage)., the thirty years or so before 1914; in all the great cities of Europe, a sense of spectacle and dynamism accompanied the drearier realities of urban life; most of all remembered for achievements in the arts
Louis Pasteur, Germ theory
Biology- developed the germ theory of disease, which held many practical medical applications at the time. Experiments he conducted proved the existence of microorganisms, and that many various types of these microorganisms were responsible for the process of fermentation, thus launching the science of bacteriology. Created a "Pasteurizing" machine and process., French biologist whose discovery of microorganisms in fermentation led to pasteurization and who also proposed the germ theory of disease which advanced modern scientific medical practices.
A process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
A surgeon who used carbolic acid to control wound infection., This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating., A british surgeon that found out that survival rate of surgical patients increased if surgeons washed their hands, sterilized instruments, and used disinfectants (carbolic acid/phenol) during surgery.
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)., A Russian chemist/teacher who published a table of the elements and listed them in order of increasing atomic mass., A russian chemist who is given credit for the first periodic table in 1869. He grouped his elements by atomic mass.
Michael Faraday, Electromagnetism
(1791- 1867) discovered electromagnetism in the 1830s and 1840s that resulted in the first dynamo (generator) and opened the way for the subsequent development of the telegraph, electric motor, electric light, and electric streetcar., discoveries in electromagnetism resulted in first dynamo (generator) and opened the way for the subsequent development of the telegraph, electric motor, electric light, and electric streetcar.
"Father of Sociology"., Agreed with Bernard but claimed that there were only a few laws about how the world worked. Positivism: society goes through growth the same way as children turn to adults. People began with the fictitious stage, in which outside forces dictate everything, then went to the metaphysical stage, in which they question everything, then went to the positive stage, in which you have laws and control., Advocated the use of systematic data collection and objective analysis to describe changes in society.
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. , A scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation
Charles Darwin, on the origin of species
1859/1964. Evolution/natural selection. Realized that a species' characteristics must somehow be transmitted biologically from one generation to the next., English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882); , On the Origin of Species was the book written by Charles Darwin that set forth the theory that higher life forms had evolved trhough random mutation and adaptation., Wrote "On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection" which stated the theory of evolution: All life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending struggle for survival; species most able to adapt survived. Darwins theory refuted literal interpretation of the Bible and angered the church.
(1825-1895) English biologist, famous for his defense of Darwinism in his public debate with Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce. Coined the term "agnosticism"., Darwin's bulldog., British scientist was quick to point out how dinosaur-like Archaeopterxy was with its uncanny resemblance to some of the smaller theropod dinosaurs. Posited that birds must be somewhat closely related to dinosaurs.
Herbert Spencer, Social Darwinism
(437) Misapplication to human society of Charles Darwin's laws of evolution and natural selection among species. Believed only fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace., the idea that biological theories can be extended and applied to the social realm. Just as competition between individual organisms drives biological evolutionary through "survival of the fittest", competition between individuals, groups, or nations drives social evolution in human societies., For many, the name of Herbert Spencer would be virtually synonymous with Social Darwinism, a social theory that applies the law of the survival of the fittest to society; humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws, including the social struggle for existence. Spencer desired the elimination of the unfit through their failure to reproduce, rather than state intervention to secure their physical annihilation.
1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference., Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do)., 1st theory about dreams, emphasis on unconcious mind, conflicts between unconcious and concious caused personality, dreams=safe place to let out unacceptable feelings
A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles., 1867-1934. Polish physicist and chemist. Pioneer in the field of radioactivity, and is the first and only person awarded the Nobel Prize in two different sciences., (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.This discovery challenged the idea that atoms were unchanging.
1909-solar system model of the atom, gold foil experiment- fired negative ions at thin sheet of gold foil, discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom ., (1911, New Zealand) Used gold foil experiment (a lead tube surrounding a radioactive sample that sent energy into a piece of gold foil surrounded by an alpha particle detector) to determine that the 999/1000 electrons would go through the foil while 1/1000 would hit the wall (nucleus) and describes the nuclear atom which has a positive nucleus (1/10000 atomic volume)., 1909 discovered the nucleus and its positive charge determined that the atom was mostly empty space(golf foil experiment).
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)., German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918., German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"., Berlin scientist; in 1900, rejected the belief that a heated body radiates energy in a steady stream; instead energy is radiated discontinuously in irregular packets, called "quantas"
(1879-1955) A German Jew, Stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter contains enormous amounts of potential energy. He also stated that the speed of light is the only thing constant from all frames of reference., 1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics., (1879-1955) A German Jew, Stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter contains enormous amounts of potential energy..
Theory of Relativity
Albert Einstein's ideas about the interrelationships between time and space and between energy and matter., (physics) the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts., Einstein's 1906 theory that space and time are relative to the person measuring them, implying that reality or truth is just a set of mental constructions.
(1891) Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism., 1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
Honore de Balzac
French realist novelist. Chiefly remembered for his series of 91 interconnected novels and stories known collectively as The Human Comedy which pictures urban society as amoral and brutal characterized by a Darwinian struggle for power., The Human Comedy; depicts human society negatively in a Darwinian viewpoint, that humans are competing with each other., French journalist and writer, one of the creators of realism in literature. Balzac's huge production of novels and short stories are collected under the name La Comedie humaine, which originated from Dante's The Divine Comedy. Among the masterpieces of The Human Comedy are Le Pere Goriot, Les Illusions Perdues, Les Paysans, La Femme de Trente Ans, and Eugenie Grandet. In these books Balzac covered a world from Paris to Provinces. The primarly landscape is Paris, with its old aristocracy, new financial wealth, middle-class trade, demi-monde, professionals, servants, young intellectuals, clerks, criminals... In this social mosaic Balzac had recurrent characters, such as Eugene Rastignac, who came from an impoverished provincial family to Paris, mixed with the nobility, pursued wealth, had many mistresses, gambled, and was a successful politician. Henry de Marsay appeared in twenty-five different novels
French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes (1819-1877)., French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th century French painting. Realist movement bridged with the Romantic movement with the Barbizon school and impressionists., (1818-1877), French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes.He was the son of a farmer and self-taught artist. His goal was to paint the worls as he saw it. He rejected the the traditional political and moral dimension of realism in favor of a more subjective and apolitical approach to art.
(1840-1902) Considered to be the father of Realism as a movement. Developed the realist novel in which he observed his characters as a scientist would observe an experiment., This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized., 1868-giant of realist movement in literature, defended his violently criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals-most known for seamy, animalistic view of working-class life-also wrote gripping, carefully researched stories featuring stock exchange, big department store, and army, as well as urban slums and bloody coal strikes-sympathized with socialism-evident in Germinal
(1828-1910), greatest Russian realist, probed deeply into the lives of his characters, fatalistic theory of history, regarded free will as an illusion., (1828-1910) Promoted a simple living: he dressed like a peasant and did physical labor - Tolstoyanism. he wrote "Anna Karenina" "War and Peace" "The Two Tsars of Russia" and "Strider". "War and Peace was based on his experiences in the army during the Crimean war., (1828-1910) A Russian realist who combined realism in description making him noticed for his famous work "War and Peace"which conveyed his central message of people accepting human love, trust, and everyday family ties.
A 19th-century Norwegian author who wrote many plays on social and political themes., -used ordinary life as the setting of his plays but examined i in a deeper way, looking at human aspirations and limitations., "Father of Realism." First wrote Romantic poems, but, after being inspired by the Meiningen Players, began writing searing realistic dramas. Plays were highly controversial. Wrote A Doll's House, Ghosts, and Hedda Gabler.
Francois Millet, The Gleaners
The Geleaners, 1857: Depicts farm women gleaning the fields after harvest.
Honore Daumier, Third-Class Carriage
French painter best known for his satirical lithographs of bourgeois society (1808-1879)., One of the first French realist painters and sculpters. Dew cartoons which ruthlessly satirized French politicians, businessmen, lawyers, and other professionals who took themselves too seriously., Very sketchy, dark colors, shows realism, look like they are actually struggle, sad.
Gustave Courbet, The Stonebreakers
An old guy and a young guy breaking rocks together.REALISM., The French artist, Gustave Courbet, responded with a large-scale painting of two laborers in the act of breaking stones along a country road. The two men are dressed in work clothes that are tattered and dirty. Their faces are shielded from us, the viewer, thus the subjects of the painting are not these two specific men, per se, but rather the action that they perform. It is hard, menial work. Courbet takes a canvas that would have normally been dedicated to a large history painting (either a scene from the historical past or contemporary present) and used it to represent a scene of the modern world. The working man was elevated to a subject worthy of painted representation
A nineteenth-century French painter and sculptor. Among his preferred subjects were ballet dancers and scenes of cafe life.impressionist painter who liked to show movement., (1834-1917) He often combined the snapshot style of photography with a Japanese-like perspective from slightly above his subject.
Edouard Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe; Olympia Impressionism
depicts common subjects, landscape, nude woman, in a very modern way, figures are not idealized, very specific (brother, brother in law, favorite female model) work was said to be horrible because it depicted a certain woman, associated with prostitution, flattened picture plane, pyramidal form., (1832-1883); French realist and impressionist painter who bridged both movements, considered the first "modernist" painter; Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe(Luncheon on the Grass,1863): shocked audiences by portraying a female nude and two male clothed companions in an every park setting; Olympia (1863): seems equally revolting to the Salon for its casual nude portrayal of a prostitute., A nineteenth-century French painter, one of the originators of Impressionism.
Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting., captures the truth of the moment, short/quick brush strokes, colors remain consistent, changing atmosphere in single picture, same colors in foreground and background, brush strokes create a screen and deny depth., (1850-1875)Foremost impressionist painter; his Impression Sunrise was considered the first impressionist painting.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, le moulin de la galette
A French impressionist painter and sculptor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One of the most popular of the impressinoists, he is known for his extravagant use of light and color, especially red, and for frequent use of the impressionist technique of small brushstrokes. His most famous paintings include Dance at Bouvgival and the series The Bathers., (1841-1919) a French artist who contributed to the development of the Impressionist style. He emphasized beauty in his artwork, especially of feminine sensuality., La Bal au Moulin de la Galette-landscapes and subjects in candid poses and nude figures
This artist of Peasant Girl Drinking Her Coffee was called the "father of Impressionism" for his influence on others., Impressionist painter, art was not definite and it was instead organic and sensational. Effects of lighting., This artist was born in the West Indies but moved to Paris when he was 25. A good friend to the other Impressionists, he often bought their work to keep them from starving, he also allowed them to live on his property with him. This artist was very adept at capturing the feeling of a place through color and mood, the viewer can sense the atmosphere and even the time of year or day. His favorite subjects were scenes of the streets of Paris.
(January 14, 1841 - March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. Undervalued for over a century, possibly because she was a woman, she is now considered among the first league of Impressionist painters., French, Impressionist painter who thought a woman's vision was much more dilicate than a man's., A sister-in-law of Manet, this woman worked and exhibited with the Impressionist. She posed for many of her friends and, in turn, painted many of them. She was influenced by Manet and by her study of Masterpieces of the Louvre and of Corot. Her design and composition are more solid than the off-hand, unposed look of many Impressionist works
Vincent Van Gogh, starry night
In this late work, the artist painted the vast night sky filled with whirling and exploding stars, the earth huddled beneath it. The painting is an almost abstract pattern of expressive line, shape, and color. Post-Impressionism., Dutch expressionist, who painted the vision of night as he imagined it, not as it really was in The Starry Night; one of his most famous portraits shows him with a bandage on his ear after he allegedly cut it off: Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear. Only became famous after his death (suicide.)
Interpreted the Impressionist technique into flat shapes, which emphasized color, line and design., Developed style, rejected western life, lived on Tahiti, make people look flat in his art., A nineteenth-century French painter best known for his use of color and his paintings of Polynesian women. He abandoned his business career, family, and country to live and paint in Tahiti., Inspired by Van Gogh he was a french stoke broker who abandoned his family and business to become a painter. For a time he was Van Gogh's roommate until madness was to intense . Moved to Tahiti and is known for his paintings.
French postimpressionist painter who influenced modern art (especially cubism) by stressing the structural components latent in nature (1839-1906)., French Post-Impressionist painter; initially influenced by the Impressionists, but later rejected their work; sought to express the underlying geometric structure and form of everything he painted, as in "Woman with Coffee Pot"., A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art., "father of modern art", used forms of geometry most commonly found in nature & applied to still-lives of fruit w/ abstract technique
Henri Matisse, les Fauves
(1869-1954); most important French artist of the 20th century; expressionism of a group of painters led by Matisse was so extreme that an exhibition of their work in Paris promoted shocked critics to call the les fauves "the wild beasts"; Matisse and his followers painted real objects, but their primary concern was the arrangement of color, line, and from as an end in itself.
Pablo Picasso, les madamoselle d'avignon
(1881-1973); most important Spanish artist of the 20th century; founder of Cubism in 1907; Les Madamoselle d'Avignon(1907) is considered the first cubist masterpiece; worked with Georges Braque (1882-1963) in developing analytical cubism., prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France; his Les Madamoselle d'Avignon is considered the first cubist masterpiece.
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes., A style of art in which the subject matter is portrayed by geometric forms, especially cubes., 1910.This movement in painting and sculpture was fathered by Picasso and Braque, and influenced by the conceptual painter, Paul Cezanne. Cezanne believed that the world could be perceived as groups of planes or solid geometric forms, (cubes, cylinders, spheres).
a dramatic style that describes a type of drama=Bright lights, colorful scenery and expressive dialogue., A form of art in which the artist depicts the inner essence of man and projects his view of the world as colored by that essence., A dramatic style developed between 1910 and 1924 in Germany in reaction against Realism's focus on surface details and external reality., - a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality.
A Russian-born painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who was a pioneer of abstract expressionism. His early canvases are turbulent abstractions; after 1920 his work incorporated brightly colored geometric forms. He taught at the Bauhaus from 1922 to 1933., Founder of the Non-objective art movement. His main goal was to convey moods and feelings and felt this could be achieved by arranging the elements of art in certain ways., A artist from Eastern Europe. Assembled colors and shapes without reference to the natural world. They were planned specifically and executed like something regarded in his mind. Avoid giving works names to avoid and direct association.
One of this man's works outlines thirty-eight strategies for winning arguments; he included the introduction to that essay, The Art of Being Right, in his essay collection whose title means "additions and omissions" in Greek. He described becoming, knowing, and being as three classes of relations in his dissertation on the principle of (*) sufficient reason's "Fourfold Root." His major work, written after his misogynistic essay "On Women," claimed that the undifferentiated noumenon drives nature, took inspiration from the Upanishads, and claimed that art is the only reprieve from the suffering caused by experience.
"God is dead" German philosopher and son of Lutheran minister who rejected Christianity b/c it glorified weakness; argued West overemphasized rationality over passion and animal instincts that drive human activity and creativity; questioned all values; existentialism.
Behavioral learned theorist, Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex., A Russian physiologist discovered Classical Conditioning while working with dogs. Believed that conditioning mental reflexes could modify behavior. (Example of a new approach to mental ailments.)
Syllabus of errors
A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
English Realist novelist who wrote Hard Times, portrayed nineteenth-century society as soulless exploitation of the working classes; he also showed the despair of London's poor working conditions and the poor in general. Wrote David Copperfield and Oliver Twist.
(philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations., A nineteenth-century literary movement that was an extension of realism and that claimed to portray life exactly as it was., A literary branch of realism which suggested that social conditions, heredity, and environment helped to shape human character, 1865-1900. Honore de Balzac, Upton Sinclair are examples., A style and theory of representation based on the accurate depiction of detail
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social contract
"Social Contract" he explained an ideal society where each community member would vote on issues and majority would become one law., A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society;
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this., (1724-1804) Deontological Ethics; non-consequentialist. 1. happiness is not an intrinsic good, it can be evil. 2. the only intrinsic good is good will (using reason to determine your duty and doing it regardless of consequences. 3. an action is right only if it is done from duty, not self-interest or inclination. 4. what is our duty?
Strum and drang
German early Romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity - suicides, duels, madness and strange illnesses were common., dramatic german poetry of the "storm and stress." movement which rejected the influence of French rationalism on German literature. emphasized feeling and emotion., A late 18th-century German literary movement characterized by works of rousing action and high emotion that often deal with the individuals revolt against society.
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also believed that history was a goal- driven process. A part of this process was the dialectic, which implied that all of history was an unfolding of events in a clear direction, or that all things happen for a reason. He believed that history takes place because of deep structural changes rather than by individuals or chance events, and that ideas precede and generate actualities., Viewed history as the master and the slave. The word dialect means a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways, like a conversation between 2 people. One person talks, putting out an idea or thesis. Then the other responds
any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments., A form of reasoning that proceeds by juxtaposing contradictory ideas and synthesizing or finding areas of agreement between them.
(1770-1850) Romantic poet, used one of the most important aspects of Romanticism: love of nature.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(1772 - 1834) English Romantic poet and very good friends with William Wodsworth. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Biographia Literaria.
Writer who wrote of a figure who had different ideas and was thought of as a stranger., meloncholy romantic hero; participated in a movement for Greek independence., This english poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free., among the major figures of the romantic movement a romantic hero., dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero that he described in his works
Percy Bysshe Shelley
collection of German folkstories, Jakob and Wilhelm, provides a strong example of how German nationalism and romanticism were tied together., the Grimm Brothers, Jakob and Wilhelm, were influenced by Herder's views about preserving songs and saying of German culture;
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
(1749-1832) A German author who wrote near the end of the Aufklärung, the German Enlightenment. Goethe's morose The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) helped fuel the Sturm and Drang movement, and his two-part Faust (1808, 1832) is seen as one of the landmarks of Western literature.
(1802-1885) French writer, an exponent in the French Romantic movement, best known poems were La Légende des siècles and Les Contemplations, best known novels- Hunchback of Notre-Dame and Les Miserables., Exemplified the romantic fascination with fantastic characters and humans emotions. Later equalled freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society., 1802-1885, reacts against neoclassicism and well written play. His first play is "Hernani", he starts romanticism, a movement defined against neoclassics. He copied Shakespeare's structure of epic scale and episodic action, created a dramatic mood/atmosphere rather than plot/character. it was grotesque as well as beautiful, presented character reality/supernatural.
Caspar David Friedrich
19th century German Romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement- especially Romantic painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog., 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important of the movement., Romantic painter whose paintings expressed mystery and mysticism. Friedrich believed that nature was closely connected with the divine and that one's inner vision determined the success of the artistic process. His paintings include Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon
Artist credited for leading the French Romantic Movement and for his expressive brush strokes and emphasis on color rather than clarity of outline and form., French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People.
important French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. He was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement., Romantic: dynamic canvasses with political stories. documentary vividness. anti-government; sense of MOTION, strong lines in "x" gives it motion; gruesome, realistic., Trained in Neoclassical style, joined the Royal Musketeers, assigned to protect the future Louis XVIII from Napoleon. Made Raft of the Medusa after a frigate shipwrecked and the captain and crew saved themselves, 15/150 survived. He interviewed survivors and painted it making a mock of deliverance.
This English painter specialized in landscapes. He reflected the changing political world in his art, which depicted dramatic and colorful scenes. He was a Romantic artist; before Romanticism, English art was primarily portraiture., depicted nature's power & terror; wild storms & sinking ships were favorite subjects; many paintings of landscapes, seascapes, sunrises, & sunsets
English landscape painter. Used natural color stippled with white to demonstrate shifting atmosphere and changing seasons. The Haywain., English landscape painter. Politically conservative. Saw the church and the British constitution as ultimately related. Considered religious institutions as barriers to political radicalism. Associated liberal reformers with evil., (1776-1821), English romantic painter, painted gentle landscapes in which human beings were at peace with their environments
British Houses of Parliament
1836-1837; The most famous public buildings in the Neo-Gothic style., epitome of how Gothic architecture was prominent in Romantic era.
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer who combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound., German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)., German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf., Came from a poor family and rose to prominence with music. Became deaf and considered suicide but wanted to reach his artistic goals. 1st period: mastered musical language and genre of his time, reflects Haydn & Mozart. 2nd period: Heroic, Romantic, style of 19th century. 3rd Introspective complex harmonies, difficult to play or comprehend.
A nineteenth-century Polish romantic composer who spent most of his career in France. He is known for his expressive piano pieces; he composed almost exclusively for that instrument., 1810-1849, 1st great piano virtuoso of romantic era, Polish child prodigy, first public concert at 8; moved to Paris and in with wide circle of friends; pieces are short and in various categories, most for piano; lyrical melodies present but complex and disjunct.
This was a pianist in the Romanticism era that was a star in his day., A Hungarian composer who wrote many nationalistic pieces during the Romantic era., Best known for his Hungarian Rhapsodies; recognized as the most accomplished pianist of his time., 1811-1886. Wrote symphonic poems, such as "Music of the Future". Was an incredible pianist well known for his virtuoso. Strong advocate of the music of Richard Wagner. He invented the symphonic poem and developed the "transformation of themes"
Czech composer; came to US to be Director of New York Conservatory; spent summer in Spillville IA; composed part of NEW WORLD SYMPHONY with goin home theme., He was a czech composer. He was very popular in Europe. he taught at the National Conservatory in America. He was a nationalist. he had a profound influence on Aaron Copland and George Gershwin, helping them find their distinct American sound. He really inspired and wrote publicly about how American composers should develop a style of their own.
italian composer, mainly of operas that were used as national songs during italian unification., 1813-1901. Revered Italian opera composer in the mid to late romantic period. Wrote operas with politcal overtones. Nationalistic, supported the unification of Italy. VERDI= Vittorio Emanuele Re D'Italia. Rigoletto, Aida, Nabucco.
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)., 1813-188; realized the German desire for a truly national opera; composer, propagandist, writer; his music was called both Romantic and "avant-garde"., (1813-1883) German composer who ultimately realized the German desire for a truly national opera; also a propagandist and writer in support of his unique conception of dramatic music; called both the culmination of the Romantic era and the beginning of the avant-garde, his music may be described as a monumental development in classical music
A nineteenth-century Russian composer. His most celebrated works include several symphonies, including the Symphonie Pathetique, and three ballets, The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and Sleeping Beauty., Most prolific writer of late 19th century program music. Wrote in every genre, but known today for program music and ballets. known as an incredibly melodist., One of the first composers to graduate from the St. Petersburg Conservatory, was depressed, neurotic, hypochondriac, and homosexual
Gothic revival architecture
Gothic Revival architecture a style of architecture which contained elements of medieval Gothic architecture and was featured in many churches., Houses of Parliament in London, strongest revival in England irregular silhouette, broken surface and vertical accenting., As a result of the romantic era and the return to Medieval strategies, this type of architecture emerged in Europe.
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