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Exam 1 Chapter 4
Terms in this set (140)
The four main types of tissue share what two components?
cells which are unique for each tissue type, extracellular matrix
What does the extracellular matrix consist of?
ground substance and protein fiber
What is epithelia held together by?
Epithelia's polarity is due to what?
apical and basal surfaces
Epithelia is attached by what?
What are cell junctions?
structures that hold epithelial cells together
What does avascularity mean?
having no blood vessels
Is epithelial tissue avascular or vascular? Can it be regenerated?
How does the epithelial tissue get blood and nutrients if it doesn't have direct blood cells?
diffusion of blood from blood vessels in connective tissue
What are the main functions of epithelial tissue?
provide physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation, produce secretions
Name the two surfaces of the epithelial tissue and if each surface is free or attached.
apical which is free and basolateral which is attached
The apical surface of the epithelial tissue is the side towards the _______.
The basolaterol surface of the epithelial tissue is the side towards the _______.
What is the apical surface made up?
microvilli which increase absorption or secretion, cilia which move fluid
What are the type of cell junctions found in epithelial tissue?
tight junctions, gap junctions, demosomes, adherents junction, hemidesmosomes
What is the function of tight junctions?
prevent passage of water and solutes
What is the function of gap junctions?
allow for rapid communication and ions to pass, coordinate contractions in heart muscle
What is the function of demosomes?
holds two cells tightly together
What is the function of adherents junctions?
resist separation of cells when contracting
What is the function of hemidesmosomes?
anchor cells to the basement membrane
How are epithelial tissues regenerated?
by division of stem cells
Stem cells are also known as
What are the defining properties of a stem cell?
It is not itself terminally differentiated, it can divide without limit, when it divides each daughter has a choice to remain a stem cell or commit to terminal differentiation
What is differentiation?
growing up of the cell
What are the stem cells in mammalian small intestine?
absorptive cells, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, paneth cells
What is the function of the absorptive stem cell?
What is the function of the goblet stem cell?
What is the function of the enteroendocrine cell?
secrete various gut hormones
What is the function of paneth cells?
secrete antibacterial proteins
How are epithelial tissues classified?
shape, transitional, layers, glandular
What are the different kinds of shapes of epithelial tissue?
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Describe squamous epithelial tissue.
thin and flat
Describe cuboidal epithelial tissue.
Describe columnar epithelial tissue.
tall, slender rectangles
What is transitional epithelial tissue and give an example.
cells that change shape, urinary bladder
What are the different kinds of layer of epithelial tissue?
Describe simple epithelial tissue.
single layer of cells
Describe stratified epithelial tissues.
several layers of cells
List where each epithelial tissue is found
Name the types of glandular epithelia?
endocrine glands, exocrine glands
What is the function of endocrine glands?
release hormones into the blood
What is the function of exocrine glands?
produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces
What are the different modes of secretion of glandular epithelia?
Merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
The modes of secretion that you learned are all _____ glands
What is merocrine secretion?
secretion released by vesicles
Where is merocirne secretion found?
What is apocrine secretion?
secretion released by shedding of some cytoplasm
Where is apocrine secretion found?
What is holocrine secretion?
secretion released by cells bursting, which kills the gland cells
What are gland cells replaced by after they have burst?
Give an example of holocrine secretion and its function.
sebaceous gland which lubricates skin and hair
What are the functions of connective tissue?
support other tissues, fill internal spaces, transport materials, store energy,
What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
have no contact with environment, vascular
What are connective tissue made up of?
few cells, extracellular matrix
What does the extracellular matrix in connective tissue consist of?
ground substance, 3 types of fibers
What is the purpose of ground substance?
supports and binds cells, stores water, allow exchange between blood and cell
What are fibers?
continuous filaments made up of chains of proteins
Name the fibers that within the extracellular matrix of connective tissue
collagen, reticular, elastic
Where are collagen fibers found?
Where are reticular fibers found?
Where are elastic fibers found?
lung tissue and arteries
What are the different types of connective tissue and there function?
connective tissue proper connects and protects, fluid connective tissues transport, supportive connective tissues structural and strength
What are the 9 types of cells found in connective tissue proper?
Fibroblasts, Fibrocytes, Macrophages, Adipocytes, Mesenchymal, Melanocytes, Mast, Lymphocytes, Microphages
What is the function of fibroblasts?
secrete proteins and hyaluronan
What is hyaluronan?
secreted by fibroblasts, goo which contributes to cell growth and migration
What are fibrocytes made of?
made of chains of proteins
What is the function of fibrocytes?
maintain the fibers
What are macrophages?
large ameobalike cells of the immune system
What is the function of macrophages?
eat pathogens and damaged cells
What are the types of macrophages?
fixed which stay in tissue, free which migrate
What are adipocytes also called?
What is the function of adipocytes?
each cell store a single, large fat droplet
What are mesenchymal cells?
What is the function of mesenchymal cells?
respond to injury or infection
What does mesenchymal cells differentiate into?
fibroblasts, macrophages, etc
What is the function of melanocytes?
synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin
What is the function of mast cells?
stimulate inflammation after injury or infection, release histamine, release heparin
The release of histamine causes _____.
vasolidation which is increase in blood flow
The release of heparin causes ______.
anticoagulant which dilutes blood and helps increase blood flow
What are lymphocytes?
immune cells in lymphoid system
What are microphages and their function?
phagocytic blood cells, defense
What are the types of connective tissue proper?
What are the types of loose connective tissue?
Areolar tissue, reticular tissue, adipose tissue
What is the function of areolar tissue?
forms the subcutaneous layer, attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs
What is reticular tissue and what is it made of?
network of reticular fibers made of collagen
Where is reticular tissue found?
lymph nodes, glands
Adipose tissue are also known as ______.
What are the types of adipose tissue?
white fat, brown fat
What is the function of white fat?
stores fat, absorbs shock, slows heat loss
What is brown fat in comparison to white fat?
more vascularized, abundant in newborns
What are facts you should know about adipocytes?
have many mitochondria, adipocytes in adults do not divide only expand to store fat and shrink to release fat
What are the types of dense connective tissues?
dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue
What is dense regular connective tissue made of?
tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers
What is dense irregular connective tissue made of?
interwoven network of collagen fibers
What are the two types of dense irregular connective tissue and their location?
perichondrium around cartilages, periosteum around bones
What are the types of fluid connective tissues?
What are the types of blood and what are they?
erythrocytes red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets white blood cells
What is lymph?
Lymph is collected from _________, monitored by ______, and returned to ________.
interstitial space, immune system, nervous system
What are the types of supportive connective tissue?
What is the function of cartilage?
shock absorption and protection
What is significant about cartilage?
surrounded by perichondrium, no blood vessels or nerve, grows slowly
What is cartilage and what does it contain
dense network of collagen and elastic fiber, contains chondrocytes
What are the types of cartilage?
Hyaline, elastc, fibrous
Where is Hyaline cartilage found?
rib tips, sternum, trachea
Where is Elastic cartilage found?
external ear and epiglottis
Where is Fibrous cartilage found and its function?
knee joints for padding, prevents bone to bone contact
Bone is also known as what?
What are bone cells called?
What is bone?
strong calcified calcium salt deposits
What is periosteum?
dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds bone
What do all membrane found in the body consist of?
epithelium and supported by connective tissue
What are the types of membranes?
mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial
What is the function of mucous membranes?
line passageways open to outside
Where are mucous membranes located? (stuff enters or leaves, open to outside)
respiratory, reproductive, digestive, urinary tract
Why are epithelial surfaces moist?
to reduce friction and facilitate absorption and excretion
What is the function of the serous membrane?
line passageways that are not open to outside
What are the types of serous membranes and what does each cover??
pleura covers lungs, peritoneum covers abdominal organs, pericardium covers heart
What is the cutaneous membrane?
What is the function of the synovial membrane? The synovial membrane contains _______ but not ________.
lines joints, produces synovial fluid lubricant, protects end of bones, connective tissue epithelium
What are the types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
What are skeletal muscles and what are they responsible for?
large body muscles responsible for movement
Where are cardiac muscle found?
Where are smooth muscles found?
hollow walls of contracting organs
Neural tissue is also known as?
nervous or nerve tissue
What is the function of neural tissue?
sends electrical impulses
Where is neural tissue concentrated?
central nervous system
What are two kinds of neural cells?
What are neurons and what is their function?
nerve cells that send electrical impulses
What is neuroglia's function?
supporting cell that maintain, repair and supply nutrients to neurons
Why do tissues respond to injuries?
to maintain homeostasis
What two processes do cells restore homeostasis with?
inflammation or inflammatory response, regeneration
What are signs and symptoms of inflammatory response?
swelling, redness, heat, pain
What is inflammatory response triggered by?
trauma (physical injury) or infection
What is the regeneration process known when trying to restore body back to homeostasis?
What is the process of inflammation?
damaged cells release chemical signals into interstitial fluid, lysosomes release enzymes which destroy damaged cell and attack surrounding tissues, mast cells release, dilation of blood vessels, plasma diffuses into area, phagocytic white blood cells clean up area
What kinds of signals are released during the process of inflammation?
prostaglandins, proteins, potassium
What is necrosis?
What is the process of regeneration?
Fibrocytes move into area with damaged tissue laying down collagen fibers which bind area together creating scar tissue
What tissue cannot regenerate?
cardiac cells and neurons
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