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Orthopedics (Orange Section) Chapter 8
Terms in this set (81)
The bones of the shoulders, upper extremities, hips, and lower extremities.
The bones of the head, chest and back.
The 206 individual pieces of the skeleton. Bone is A.k.a: OSSEOUS TISSUE. Bony and osteal are also adjectives.
Body system that consists of all bones, ligaments, and joints in the body.
The combined systems of the bones and muscles. The bones provide support for the muscles, and the muscles enable the bones to move. A.k.a: the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Bony framework of the body that consists of all the bones.
Immoveable suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bones of the cranium.
Domelike bone at the top of the head that contains the CRANIAL CAVITY and the brain and other structures.
Bone that forms the posterior nasal septum and the medial walls of the eye sockets. It contains many tiny hollow areas that are the ethmoid sinus.
Soft spot on a baby's head where the cranial sutures are still open and there is only fibrous connective tissue.
A hole in the bone. The FORAMEN MAGNUM is the largest. The spinal cord passes through it to join with the brain. There is a foramen in each vertebra where the spinal cord passes through. There are small foramina in the bones where blood vessels go through to the bone marrow.
Bone that forms the forehead and front of the cranium and ends at the coronal suture. It contains the frontal sinuses.
A U-shaped bone in the anterior neck that anchors the muscles of the tongue and larynx.
Facial bones within the eye socket. They are small, flat bones near the lacrimal glands, which produce tears.
Facial bone that forms the lower jaw and contains the roots of the lower teeth. It is the only moveable bone in the skull and forms a joint just in front of the ear with the temporal bone (the temporomadibular joint).
Facial bones that form the immoveable upper jaw, the inferior edges of the eye sockets, and the anterior part of the hard palate. They support the nose and lips and contain the roots of the upper teeth and the maxillary sinuses. The two fused maxillary bones are the MAXILLA.
Facial bones that form the bridge of the nose and the roof of the nasal cavity.
Bone that forms the posterior base of the cranium. It contains the large opening, the foramen magnum.
Three tiny bones in the middle ear that function in the process of hearing. They are also known as the ossicular chain.
Facial bones that are small and flat and form the posterior hard palate.
Bones that form the upper sides and upper back of the cranium. They join at the sagittal suture.
Immoveable suture between the two parietal bones on the right and left sides of the cranium.
Bony structure of the head that consists of the cranium and facial bones.
Large, irregular bone that forms the central base of the cranium and the posterior walls of the eye sockets. It contains the sphenoid sinuses. A bony cup in the sphenoid bone holds the pituitary gland.
Bones that form the lower sides of the cranium. They contain the openings for the external ear canals. Bony landmarks include the MASTOID PROCESS behind the ear and the pointed STYLOID PROCESS, a site of attachment for tendons to the muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for ligaments to the hyoid bone.
Facial bone that forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and continues posteriorly to join the sphenoid bone.
Facial bone that forms the lateral edge of the eye socket and the cheek bone.
Firm, but flexible segments of connective tissue that join the ribs to the sternum. The area where the costal cartilage meets the rib is the COSTOCHONDRAL JOINT.
Twelve pairs of bones that form the sides of the thorax. There are true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs.
Vertical bone of the anterior thorax to which the clavicle and ribs are attached. A.k.a: the BREAST BONE. The MANUBRIUM is the triangular-shaped superior part of the sternum, while the XIPHOID PROCESS is the inferior pointed tip.
Bony cage of the chest that contains the THORACIC CAVITY with the heart, lungs, and other structures. A.k.a: the RIB CAGE.
Vertebrae C1-C7 of the spinal column in the neck. C1 is the ATLAS; C2 is the AXIS.
Group of several small, fused vertebrae inferior to the sacrum. A.k.a: TAIL BONE.
Circular disk between two vertebrae. It consists of an outer wall of fibrocartilage and an inner gelatinous substance, the NUCLEUS PULPOSUS that acts as a cushion.
Vertebrae L1- L5 of the spinal column in lower back.
Group of five fused vertebrae inferior to the lumbar vertebrae.
Bony vertical column of vertebrae. A.k.a: the SPINAL COLUMN, VERTEBRAL COLUMN, or BACKBONE. It is divided into five regions: cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx. Spine also refers to a bony projection, such as the spinous process on a vertebra.
Vertebrae T1-T12 of the spinal column in the area of the chest.
Bony structure in the spine. Most vertebrae have a vertebral body (flat, circular area), SPINOUS PROCESS (bony projection along the midback), two TRANSVERSE PROCESSES (bony projections to the side), and a FORAMEN (hole where the spinal cord passes through).
Flat, bony projection of the scapula where it connects to the clavicle.
Horizontal rodlike bone along each shoulder. It joins with the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula. A.k.a: the COLLAR BONE.
Shallow depression in the scapula where the head of the humerus joins the scapula to make the shoulder joint.
Triangular-shaped bone on each side of the upper back. A.k.a: the SHOULDER BLADE. It contains the ACROMION.
The eight small bones of the wrist joint.
Long bone of the upper arm. The head of the humerus fits into the genomic fossa of the scapula to make the shoulder joint.
The five long bones of the hand, one corresponding to each finger. They are distal to the wrist bones.
Large, square, bony projection on the proximal ulna that forms the point of the elbow.
One of the individual bones of a finger or toe. A finger to toe is a DIGIT or a RAY.
Forearm bone located along the thumb side of the lower arm.
Forearm bone located along the little finger side of the lower arm.
Cup-shaped deep socket in the hip bone that is formed by the ilium and the pubic bone. It is where the head of the femur fits to make the hip joint.
Most superior hip bone. It has a broad, flaring ILIAC CREST. Posteriorly, each ilium joins the sacrum. The ilium contains the acetabulum, the deep socket of the hip joint.
Most inferior hip bone. Each ischium is one of the "seat bones".
The hip bones as well as the sacrum and coccyx of the spinal column.
Small bridgelike bone that is the most anterior hip bone. The PUBIC SYMPHYSIS is a nearly immobile joint between the two PUBIC BONES.
Largest of the ankle bones. A.k.a: the HEEL BONE.
Lone bone of the upper leg. A.k.a: THIGH BONE. The head of the femur fits into the acetabulum to make the hip joint.
Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg, located on the little toe side. The adjectives fibular and peroneal mean fibula.
The great toe
Bony projection of the distal tibia (MEDIAL MALLEOLUS) or the fibula (LATERAL MALLEOLUS). Often mistakenly called the ankle bones.
The five long bones of the midfoot, one corresponding to each toe. They are distal to the ankle bones.
Thick, round bone anterior to the knee joint. A.k.a: KNEECAP.
The seven bones in the ankle joint. The first is the tarsus; the largest is the calcaneus.
Larger of the two bones of the lower leg and located on the great toe side of the lower leg. A.k.a: the SHIN BONE.
Cartilage that covers the bone ends in a synovial joint.
Area where two bones come together. A.k.a: an ARTICULATION. There are three types of joints: suture, symphysis, and synovial.
Fibrous bands that hold two bone ends together in a synovial joint.
Crescent-shaped cartilage pad found in some synovial joints such as the knee.
Immoveable joint between two cranial bones. This joint contains no cartilage.
Slightly moveable joint between the two pubic bones (the pubic symphysis) or between the vertebrae. This joint contains a fibrocartilage pad or a disk.
A fully moveable joint. There are two types: hinge joint (the elbow and the knee) and ball-and-socket joint (the shoulder and the hip). Ligaments hold the bone ends together. The entire joint is enclosed in a joint capsule. The inner surface of the joint capsule is lined by a SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that produces SYNOVIAL FLUID to lubricate the joint.
Spongy bone in the epiphyses of long bones. Its spaces are filled with red bone marrow that makes blood cells. It is also found in the skull, clavicles, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and hip bones.
Dense, compact, weightbearing bone along the diaphysis or shaft of a long bone.
The straight shaft of a long bone.
One of the two widened ends of a long bone. It contains the EPIPHYSIAL PLATE where bone growth takes place.
Cavity within the shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone. It contains yellow bone marrow (fatty tissue).
Process by which cartilage is changed into bone from infancy through adolescence.
Bone cell that forms new bone or rebuilds bone.
Bone cell that breaks down old or damaged areas of bone .
Bone cell that maintains and monitors the mineral content (calcium, phosphorus) of bone.
Thick, fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of a bone.
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