Science MCAS Review (Part 1) 2019

A student removes a pitcher of chilled lemonade from a 5°C refrigerator and leaves the pitcher in a 20°C room for several hours. Which of the following statements best describes the flow of energy during this time?
Heat energy flows from the room to the lemonade until the lemonade and the room are the same temperature.
The graph below shows the motion of four different cars over a period of 5 s.
car B
Which of the following was directly caused by the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth?
an increase in the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere
A student drew the model of a bridge. Which direction represents the compression forces acting on the bridge's towers?
Towards the center of the bridge.
White blood cells help protect the human body from disease. This is an example of which two body systems working together?
circulatory system and immune system
An apple falls off a tree onto the ground. Which of the following best describes what eventually happens to the material that makes up the apple?
Microscopic organisms break down the apple and release its material into the soil and air.
The bone structures in a bat wing and a whale flipper are shown. Which of the following statements best explains the similarity between the bone structures in the bat wing and the whale flipper?
Both animals evolved from a common ancestor.
A student makes a ball-and-stick model of a propane molecule, as shown. The black balls represent carbon atoms, and the white balls represent hydrogen atoms.
Which of the following statements describes what most likely occurs when thermal energy is removed from a liquid?
The temperature of the liquid decreases.
Humans inherit only 46 chromosomes but show thousands of different genetic traits. Which of the following best explains how humans can show thousands of traits?
Each chromosome has hundreds to thousands of genes that store information for specific traits.
The table lists some of the cell structures present in four different cells. Based on the information in the table, which cell is most likely an animal cell?
cell 4
Sucrose (C12H22O11) is also known as table sugar. What is the smallest unit of sugar that maintains the chemical characteristics of sugar?
a molecule
Which of the following statements describes a characteristic that is common to bacteria, mushrooms, insects, and plants?
Each type of organism is made of one or more cells.
The diagram shows the path of a ball bouncing on the ground. Four locations in the path are identified with numbers. At which location does the ball have the greatest amount of kinetic energy?
location 1
A substance with a mass of 10 g is heated to produce two new substances. The mass of the first new substance is 9.3 g and the mass of the second new substance is 0.7 g.
Which of the following is best demonstrated by this example?
law of conservation of mass
The diagrams represent different ways heat is transferred. The arrows in the diagrams show the direction of heat transfer. Which table shows the primary way heat is transferred in each diagram?
x = convection, y = conduction, z = radiation
A crop of corn plants is genetically modified so that the plants produce a natural pesticide. People are concerned that these corn plants might transfer modified genetic material to other plants. Which of the following is the best way to further modify the plants to prevent them from transferring their genetic materials to other plants?
changing the plants so they do not make pollen
Wolves kill many elk every year and often attack old, sick, and injured members of a herd. Which of the following best describes the role of the wolves in the wolf-elk relationship?
Which of the following diagrams best represents a mixture?
different molecules
Which of the following correctly orders part of a fish's respiratory system from the least complex to most complex?
cells → tissues → gills
The diagrams show a section of a bridge before and after more beams were added. What is the main reason more beams were added to the bridge?
to spread tension and compression forces over a wider area
The diagram shows an energy pyramid for a lake ecosystem. Which of the following best describes the role of the perch in this energy pyramid?
secondary consumer
A student is measuring the length of the object shown in the picture. Which of the following rulers should the student use to measure the length of the object more precisely?
a ruler that is marked in millimeters
A species of bird migrates from South America across the Atlantic Ocean to its summer breeding ground in northern Canada. The birds stop on the east coast of the United States to eat the eggs of horseshoe crabs. The migration route of these birds is shown on the map. Which of the following changes would most threaten this species of bird with extinction?
decreased populations of horseshoe crabs
A natural process is represented in the box. Which of the following processes is represented in the box?
The freezing point of nitrous oxide is -91°C. Which of the following statements best describes the effect on the particles in liquid nitrous oxide as its temperature is lowered to -91°C?
The speed of the particles decreases.
An illustration of a bacterium is shown. Based on the illustration, which of the following can be concluded about the bacterium?
It is made up of one cell.
A student heats two pans of water on a stove using the highest setting. One pan contains 1 L of water and the other pan contains 3 L of water. The student heats each pan until the water boils. Which of the following statements best describes what happens to the water in the pans?
They boil at the same temperature
The diagram represents a cycle in an ecosystem. Which of the following do the arrows most likely represent?
Which of the following best describes the mass of a solid block of ice?
the amount of matter in the block
Euglena is a single-celled photosynthetic organism. Clover is a multicellular green plant. Which of the following activities is carried out by both euglena and clover?
using light energy to produce sugar
A species of moth in England has both a light-colored form and a dark-colored form. In the mid-1800s, the percentage of dark-colored moths increased in areas where black soot from factories covered the trees. The soot in these areas has decreased in more recent times as a result of pollution laws. Which of the following statements describes what has most likely happened to the moth populations in these areas?
The percentage of dark-colored moths in the populations decreased.
A scientist is comparing two body cells of a multicellular organism. Which of the following is most likely identical?
number of chromosomes
Which of the following combinations is a mixture rather than a compound?
oxygen and nitrogen in air
The temperature in a classroom is 15°C (59°F). The teacher turns the thermostat to 20°C (68°F) and keeps the door closed. Which of the following statements best describes the change that occurs as the temperature in the room increases to 20°C?
The room becomes warmer as heat energy is added to the room.
The table shows the mass and the weight of a certain object on Earth. The force of gravity on the Moon is about one-sixth the force of gravity on Earth. What are the approximate mass and approximate weight of the same object on the Moon?
Mass (kg) = 6, Weight (N) = 10
Carbon dioxide produced by cells is removed from the body primarily by which body system?
Which of the following diagrams best represents two different elements combining to form a compound?
X + Z = XZ
Just before sunset, a student recorded the temperature of the air and the soil at the same location. The student found that the air and the soil had the same temperature.
Which of the following statements describes how the air and soil temperatures most likely changed after sunset on that day?
The air temperature decreased more quickly than the soil temperature.
Which of the following is an example of asexual reproduction?
Trees send out rootlike extensions that produce new stems.
The graph represents the motion of a runner during a 2000-meter race. During which of the following time periods is the runner's speed constant?
6-8 min
Which of the following statements best describes the process of natural selection in a population?
Some individuals have genetic differences that make them more likely to survive and reproduce in their environment.
Which of the following observations best supports the conclusion that two animal species evolved from a common ancestor in recent geological history?
The species have similar bone structure.
Which of the following tools would give the most precise measurement of 15 milliliters of water?
a 50 mL graduated cylinder
Which of the following do water (H2O), rust (Fe2O3), and salt (NaCl) have in common?
Water, rust, and salt are compounds.
Anya is observing an organism in the laboratory. The table shows her observations. The organism Anya is observing most likely belongs to which kingdom?
A cold can of juice is removed from the refrigerator and is placed outdoors on a warm day. After several minutes, moisture appears on the outside of the cold can.
Which of the following statements best explains why the moisture appears?
Water vapor in the air condenses into a liquid on the cold can.
When a person's sweat evaporates, the person feels cooler. Which of the following statements best describes why sweating helps the person feel cool?
Heat is absorbed by sweat when it evaporates.
Which of the following has changed over the last 200 years primarily due to human activity?
the composition of the atmosphere
A ball will be rolled four times. In which of the following situations will some of the kinetic energy of the ball be converted into potential energy as the ball rolls?
rolling uphill
The diagram shows a partial food web for some of the organisms in an area. If all the trees in the area were cut down, the energy supply of which population would be most directly affected?
Which of the following parts of a plant cell has a function that is most similar to the function of an animal skeleton?
cell wall
The diagram shows the X chromosomes in a female fruit fly and the X and Y chromosomes in a male fruit fly. The two fruit flies are crossed with each other. The female offspring of the fruit flies will receive which pair of chromosomes?
X from the female and X from the male
Muscle cells need to quickly convert energy from food molecules into a usable form. For this reason, which of the following do muscle cells have in greater numbers than most other types of cells?
A student rolls a ball down the ramp shown in the picture below. The ramp is supported by four stacked books. The student removes two books from the stack supporting the ramp and rolls the ball down the ramp again. Which of the following statements best describes how the ball's motion is different after the books are removed?
The ball takes more time to reach the bottom of the ramp.