Cells Chapter One Combined Set
Terms in this set (49)
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
elements found in living things include
carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S).
two or more elements combined chemically
Most elements in living things occur
in the form of compounds.
compounds that contain carbon
Organic compounds found in living things include
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
do not contain the element carbon
an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (sugars, starches)
energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (waxes, oils, fats)
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur (meat, eggs, fish, nuts, beans).
A small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus that contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
Two kinds of nucleic acids.
DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
genetic material that 1) carries information about an organism; 2) is passed from parent to offspring; 3) directs all of the cell's functions 4) found mostly in the chromatin in the nucleus.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
plays an important role in the production of proteins; found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus.
water makes up
about two thirds of your body
Most chemical reactions within cells could not take place
gives cells their size and shape; keeps the temperature of cells from changing rapidly
A cell without water would be like
a balloon without air.
basic units of structure and function in living things.
an instrument that makes small objects look larger.
widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
invention of microscope made
discovery and learning about cells possible.
one of the first to observe cells
Robert Hooke was the first to use the word
"cell" to describe the smallest units of life.
observed tiny objects ("animalcules") with microscopes
Van Leeuwenhoek is considered to be the
"Father of Microscopy."
concluded all plants were made of cells
concluded all animals (all living things) were made of cells
proposed that new cells are formed only from existing cells
1. all living things are composed of cells
2. cells are basic units of structure and function in living things.
3. all cells are produced from other cells.
A compound microscope is one that has
two sets of lenses.
Total magnification =
(ocular) * (objective)
Microscopes vary in powers of
powers of magnification and resolution
While using the high power objective
never use the coarse adjustment knob
tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within a cell
rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants (protects and supports cell)
controls what substances come into and out of a cell (security guard)
cell's control center directing all cell activities (brain)
region between cell membrane and nucleus (gel)
rod-shaped structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell uses to function (powerhouses)
passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another (hallways)
small grain-like structure where proteins are made (protein factory)
receives proteins from ER, packages them, and distributes to other parts of cell (mail room)
green organelles that capture sunlight energy and convert it into food for the cell (plant food factory)
storage areas of cells for water, food, waste (storage closet)
most plants have
one large central vacuole
small round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell (clean up crew)
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