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a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that canreach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
theory of mind
people's idea about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have two x chromosomes; males have one. An x chromosome from each parent produces a female child
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an x chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period crystallized intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
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