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Religion Exam 1
Terms in this set (63)
latin, "Belong to its own kind", "class of its own", a unique, one of a kind experience
Scholars rejecting the SUI GENERIS view of religion, Deny any supernatural experiences and influences, Contend that the real meaning of religion can be understood by examining the subject from an outside position
Expose the ways a religion "functions" in a society or community. Ex: Karl Marx, Freud,
Focus more on the inside position, Believe in some aspect of diety, Experts in nature of religion, Ex. Pastor Haggard
What is the definition of Abrahamic Monotheism in all 3 Traditions?
Belief in one God, the Lord of Abraham
as a dynamic cultural complex with positive or negative impacts that states a claim to legitimacy based on a
foundational connection to reports of hierophany.
How did biblical criticisim change in post-Enlightenment?
-Before enlightenment, students of theology most believed that Bible was directly revealed or inspired by
-Post-enlightenment, criticism of Authors on what/why/when they as Authors wrote the Bible
It is a racist attitude running through Western scholarship and politics that lumps all peoples of the "Orient" (East) together without distinguishing their specific characteristics. Concept developed by Edward Said, post-colonial theorist
are manifestation of the sacred. These are unique events, but people attempt to recapitulate them in the
ritual arena of space-time using power of objects.
a Latin expression representing a mystery that draws people toward it, because it evokes the emotion of religious fascination
a Latin expression representing a mystery that frightens people away because it evokes the emotion of religious awe
How is Traditional Erasure Allowed?
Persecution, Conversion, & Cultural Imperialism
How is Subtle Erasure Allowed by Scholars with the best of intentions?
- Literary Bias, Giving Less Importance to weaker population, Giving more value to specific text than to
one's living it
- To avoid Subtle Erasure, scholars should importance to not only bias within their data set, but also their choice of data
Similar to Quranic Chapters, Quran has 114, which range from very long to very short
Similar to Quranic Revelations, Literally mean "signs" by God for creation for humans to ponder in amusement, Ayah can be both literal (specific) or metaphorical (unspecific)
What are the 4 categories of Interpretation of Biblical Text?
Literal: Textual Meaning, Allegorical: Spiritual Meaning, Moral: Lesson Meaning, Anagogical: Heavenly Sense
What are two kinds of religious study
Does UGA follow "Traditional" or "Academic" study of religion
Academic. Uga is not only an academic teaching institution, but it is also a research institution
How can one measure the religious spirituality of others
how can one experience the same religious experience of the other
what is the difficulty with sensing someone else's experience
-Outside the capabilities of the human 5 senses
-Experiences are unique in how they are perceived
what is an insider position
First-hand knowledge and personal experience of a tradition in all aspects of its application
what is an outsider position
A critical curiosity of a religious tradition where direct first hand knowledge is limited
- to adopt both inside and outside positions in their study of religion
- difficulty in empathizing with other's experience, while making a critical assessment, without the influence of personal bias
- to emphasize with a religious worldview, while maintaining a critical perspective
Is the "Insider /Outsider Challenge" a concern for interfaith or intra-faith?
what does the text lean towards
the text leans towards religionist approach with focus on how religion functions and what it means
what are the 3 functions played by religion in society
Religion of resistance
if some members in a community are subject to unjust treatment
Ex. early Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Religions of revolution
-members practicing militancy ore rebellious action
-primarily used for political gains during developing years
Ex. developing Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Religion of Status Quo
- Established stabilizing religion covering large area
- Ex: Established Judaism, Christianity & Islam
Religion may start as resistance, grow to revolt, and get established as status quo religion
What is a status quo religion in North America and Europe these days?
Which was the status-quo religion during Abraham's youth?
Which was the status-quo religion during the periods of Moses and Jesus
Worshipping Pharaoh, Paganism, and Judaism
What religious tradition is currently "perceived" as religion of revolution and resistance in NA and Europe
How is religion defined in course text
as a dynamic cultural complex with positive or negative impacts that states a claim to legitimacy based on a foundational connection to reports of hierophony
are all traditions monolithic (static and homogeneous)?
No, as religions grow, traditions and practitioners represent different areas of the spectrum
Object that represents, or reconstitutes a sacred entity, acting as a stand-in for a hierophany.
do not discount the viewpoints of believers, they are not caretakers of religion. Reductionists are culture critics who contribute to the health of a society by exposing abuses to which people have been subject in the name of religion.
The challenge for people to adopt both inside and outside positions in their study of religions. This means to empathize with a religious worldview while maintaining a critical (analytic, not hostile) perspective.
Term for a scholar in religious studies who holds a sui generis view of religions, and claims that something irreducibly religious exists. (Robert A. Segal's term)
Term for a scholar of religious studies who rejects the sui generis view of religions, and explains religious data without presuming the existence of anything irreducibly religious. (Robert A. Segal's term)
Thinkers who take up the truth question tend to engage in praxis and involve personal beliefs in their life work
are a prime example of reductionist-type believers who judge the truth-value of religion, and act according to their views
are a primer example of religionist-type believers who take up the issue of truth
historians of religion
can be distinguished according to whether they are religionists or reductionists. Religionists argue for the sui generis position of religion, while reductionists argue against it
Term meaning "man the religious."
holy or wholly other
Otto said that experience of the Holy is so radical or Wholly Other that people are smitten with the dual impulse both to run away from it, and run to it -- to escape it, and embrace it
Otto coined this term to stand for this "extra" in the meaning of holy and beyond the meaning of goodness (the spirit of divine power presiding over a thing or place)
manifestation of the sacred
religions of status quo
perpetrate a way of life that can be experienced as positive by some and negative by others
religions of resistance
they resist the religions of the status quo due to values, beliefs, and practices that are at odds with those prevailing in society
religions of revolution
they actively challenge religions of the status quo through some form of militant or rebellious action
three roots of modern study of religions
Christian theology, the European Enlightenment and European colonialism. These forces proved to be both creative and destructive for our understanding of world religions, as certain groups were "erased," while others be-came highly visible and powerful.
academic discipline of christian theology
the scholastic theologians asked questions about the nature of the divine, and the relationship between revelation and reason
A European cultural movement spanning the late 1600s to the late 1700s.
Refers to Europeans in modern times (sixteenth to twentiety centuries) taking political and economic control of foreign territories to gain control of maritime trade.
The domination that results from the spread of cultural values and customs from a politically or economically powerful nation or civilization.
historical context of scriptures
consideration of who wrote, when they wrote, why they wrote, and for whom they wrote
islamism (islamic political fundamentalism)
Can be viewed in part as a response to European colonialism. Muslims sought to establish a religious identity that stood in contradistinction to the west
Term referring to the cultural phenomenon of a culture or people becoming "invisible" due to factors such as cultural imperialism, political, religious, or ecomonic domination, and racism.
A metaphor that emphasizes the orientalist view of the world as divided into two opposing flat plates.
A racist attitude that lumps all peoples of the "orient" (East) together without distinguishing their specific characteristics. (Edward Said's term)
flow of Judaic, Christian, and Islamic Tradition
1) Judaism with Old Testament
2) Christianity with Old Testament and New Testament
3) Islam with Quran