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NO NO NO NO NO Anatomical terms and notes
Mrs. Noel Gifted Biology 1 2/10/14 (edited for what Madison needs to know) Scariest set of cards on this planet.
Terms in this set (85)
All animals fall under two categories:
1. Invertebrates (no spine)
2. Vertebrates (have a spine)
Name the 13 features of all animals.
1. Multicellular (metazoans)
3. Ingestive heterotrophic (take in food and internally digest it)
4. Motile, Sessile (attached), or Benthic (attached to bottom of ocean)
5. Stores food as glycogen in the liver
6. Skeletal support (exoskeleton or endoskeleton)
7. Diploid (two sets of chromosomes)
8. Sexual reproduction
9. No cell wall
10. Form a blastula (embryo) during gastrulation
11. Specialized tissues: blood: O2 -> CO2, nervous (impulses), skin (protection), etc.
12. Levels of organization (cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism)
13. Cell junction (holds cells in a tissue together, connective tissue)
Name the four main connective tissues and what they attach to one another/do.
1. Ligament - bone to bone
2. Tendon - muscle to bone
3. Cartilage - protect ends of bones
4. Adipose - fat (protection), connects skin to muscle
1. ________ (fertilized egg) -> ________ ( _____ ______ ______) -> forms _______ (solid ball of cells) ------> forms _______ (hollow ball of cells with fluid filled center called _______ ).
2. ________ folds inward ( _____ ), forming an ______ called the _______ (may become the _____ or _____).
3. Process of ______ known as _________.
4. Forms multiple _____ layers (tissue)
5. _____ stage has a single _____ into a ______ ____ called the ________.
1. Zygote -> cleavage (rapid mitotic division) -> morula -> blastula (blastocoel)
2. Blastula (invaginates), opening, blastopore, (mouth or anus)
3. infolding, gastrulation
5. Gastrula, opening, primitive gut, archenteron
A person remains a zygote for about _____ (time).
Animal that develops a mouth from the _______ is called a ______. Name the type of organisms that fall into this category.
blastopore, protostome; mollusks, worms, and arthropods
Animal that develops an anus from the _______ is called a ______. Name the type of organisms that fall into this category.
blastopore, deuterostome; vertebrates and echinoderms
____ (tissue) layers:
All animals have ______ _____ and ____ _____ - _______.
outer ectoderm, inner endoderm - Diploblastic
Animals with ______ ________ have 3 layers. They are called _______. The third layer is called the ______.
bilateral symmetry; triploblastic; mesoderm
What type of animals are diploblastic?
Cnidarians (jellyfish, sea fans, etc.)
What type of animals are triploblastic?
all worms, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, and vertebrates
Ectoderm - _____ layer of tissue: (name what it develops into)
exterior; Develops into skin, skin derivatives, nervous system, and sensory organs
Mesoderm - ______ layer of tissue: (name what it develops into)
middle; Develops into skeleton, muscle, excretory/urinary system, circulatory, reproductive system
Endoderm - ______ layer of tissue: (name what it develops into)
interior; Develops into digestive system, respiratory system, etc.
What is symmetry (in terms of animals)?
Arrangement of body parts around an axis
no symmetry (sponges)
Radial symmetry definition:
symmetry in the shape of a wheel; body parts arranged in a circle around a center axis (cnidarians, echinoderms)
Bilateral symmetry definition:
symmetry in which there is a right and left side that are mirror images and anterior (head), posterior (tail) end. (worms, arthropods, and all vertebrates)
When sensory organs concentrate at the anterior or head end of the organism. This occurs in animals that have bilateral symmetry.
Only present in more complex animals, may occur internally, externally, or both. It is the repetition of body parts (vertebrae, ribs).
Segments may be fused such as cephalothorax covering head and chest of crayfish.
Earthworms have internal and external segmentation; vertebrates have internal (vertebrae)
Most animals have a body _____.
_______ is a true _____ ______ fully lined (top and bottom) with _____.
Coelom, body cavity, mesoderm
_______ is an animal with no ______ (flatworms)
_______ is an animal with a "___" ______ only partially lined with _______. Name an organism that is like this.
Pseudocoelomate; "false" coelom, mesoderm; roundworms
_______ is an animal with a _____ coelom, that is fully lined with _____.
Coelomate, true, mesoderm
Some animals go through ______ _______ or _____ larval forms, that (do/do not) resemble the adult.
indirect development, immature, DO NOT
The larva of cnidarians are called _____.
Planula (jellyfish, Portuguese-man-o-war, etc.)
The larva of mollusks are called _____.
Trocophore (Squid, clams, snails, etc.)
The larva of echinoderms are called ______.
Dipleurula (starfish, sand biscuits, etc.)
Metamorphosis may be ______ or _______.
Incomplete metamorphosis: Describe the cycle.
egg -> nymph -> adult
Complete metamorphosis: Describe the cycle.
egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult
Support systems are basically an organism's _______ or _______. For humans, we have a ______.
exoskeleton, endoskeleton, skeleton/endoskeleton.
Sponges are supported by ______ ( ____ ) and ______. They are also the _____ animals.
spongin (protein), spicules; simplest
Coral polyps are supported by _______ _____.
_____ have fluid-filled body cavities, making a ______ ______ that _____ push against.
Worms, hydrostatic skeleton, muscles
______ have an _____ that must be ____ or _____ to grow. This is called _____.
Arthropods, exoskeleton, shed, molt; ecdysis
________ and ____ have internal _______.
Vertebrates and echinoderms, endoskeletons
Integumentary system (function).
Serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, provides protection against UV radiation from the sun
Skeletal system (function)
Supports the body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores mineral reserves, provides a site for blood cell formation
Muscular system (organs and function)
Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
Works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement, helps too circulate blood and move food through digestive system.
Nervous system (function)
Regulates the body by nerve impulses, recognizes and coordinate's the body's response in response to changes in it's internal and external environments
Endocrine system (functions)
Controls growth, development, and metabolism. Maintains hormones
Circulatory system (functions)
Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cell, fights infections, removes cell wastes, helps to regulate body temperature
Lymphatic/Immune system (functions)
Helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid into the cifrculatory system
Respiratory system (functions)
Supplies oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, regulates acid-base balance
Digestive system (functions)
Breaks down food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body and eliminates solid wastes
Excretory system (functions)
Eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis
Reproductive system (functions)
Produces reproductive cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo
To the side
Side opposite the surface where mouth is located (only present in echinoderms)
Technical term for molting
Away from head
Farther away from attachment of extremity
Nearer from attachment of extremity
Tail or rear end. *
IN USE IN A SENTENCE, A TAIL MUST BE REFERENCED
Away from surface
On the same side of the body
List all 11 systems **
Be able to list at least one function of each for test
BE ABLE TO TELL IF A SENTENCE IS TRUE OR FALSE WITH DIRECTIONAL AND ANATOMICAL TERMS. THEN CORRECT FALSE ONES.
WILL BE ON THE TEST
Largest invertebrate? Smallest invertebrate? What percent of animals are invertebrates?
Largest: Colossal/Giant Squid
Eats plants only?
Eats animals and plants?
Eats animals only?
Eats decaying bits of food?
Respiration by lungs? Through the skin?
Circulatory system where blood remains in a vessel?
Circulatory system where blood enters a sinus?
What are structures that respond to stimuli? List 5.
Another name for brain?
What are effectors?
Organs that bring about a change to maintain homeostasis; usually a gland. Glands produce hormones to stabilize the body, such as the pancreas that produces insulin to maintain correct blood sugar levels.
Name four skin derivatives.
Nails, hair, feathers, shells/claws
What is a group of cells performing a specific functions? Name three examples.
tissue: blood, muscle, nervous
Study of the functions of organisms? Study of the structure of organisms?
A filled space with fluid that lies between the gut and body wall?
Reproduction containing both gonads.
Reproduction that produces cloned cells.
Example of regeneration?
Skin, liver, starfish
List the three parts of the nervous system?
PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS
Identify the following organs by their germ layer:
6. Respiratory lining
9. Stomach lining
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