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MH CH 2, MH CH 5, MH CH 3, MH CH 4, MH CH 8, MH CH 6, MH CH 9
Terms in this set (77)
mass newspapers two functions
1. sustaining national morale
2. propaganda vehicles
The first newspaper and its date
Leipziger Zeitung - 1660
Date of Stamp Act
Causes of the emergence of mass press
1. removal of duties 2. policy changes 3. changes in economic organization
Changes in economic organization
1. rise of advertising 2. development of newspaper and magazine chains --> press barons
Why did the costs of newspapers to the public go down while the production costs went up?
Because of the growth of advertising
Why were newspapers interesting for advertisers?
1. wide audience 2. audience with sufficient spending power
Name three characteristics of broadsheets.
1. authorativeness 2. comprehensive news coverage 3. emphasis on accuracy
Name four characteristics of tabloids.
1. inexpensive mass-appeal 2. smaller than broadsheets 3. more photographs 4. used particular style of journalism to attract the masses
Characteristics of late 19th century popular newspaper press
1. new approaches to presentation and layout 2. changes in journalistic style 3. shifting priorities in content
New styles of presentation
1. different typefaces 2. new layouts 3. greater use of illustrations
Name two characteristics of yellow journalism.
1. thrives on sensationalism, emotive headlines, pictorial material 2. promotes particular causes that appeal to larger audiences and maximize profit
Name the two main roles of propaganda in a total war.
1. maintain moral among home-front population 2. influence opinion in neutral/enemy countries
Name the five main companies of newspaper production.
1. Associated Press 2. Amalgamated Press 3. Westminster Press 4. Beaverbrook 5. Cadbury groups
Define display advertising.
Non-classified advertisements with visual appeal
In what way has advertising changed?
It went from factual notices to larger advertisements, thus from informing to persuading.
Name two methods of persuasion in advertisements.
1. brand-name advertising 2. slogans or catchphrases
What caused the rise of consumer culture in the US?
1. vast expansion of consumer goods 2. greater affordability 3. steady reduction in working hours 4. increased availability of inexpensive entertainments
Define psychological advertising.
Consumers are best reached through emotional appeals rather than reason.
Why was radio interesting for advertisers?
commercial blended easily with entertainment; radio personalities as showman and salesman seemed to speak personally to each listener
Explain in what way media dependence on advertising has threatened freedom of expression.
1. fear of offending audience which would deter advertisers 2. fear of criticizing companies with advertising money to spend
Name three liberal criticisms about advertising's economic role.
1. advertising raises prices of products (cause of need to recoup costs) 2. works against rational consumer choice & efficient use of resources 3. create 'false needs'
What is the main difference between film and newspapers?
Newspapers rrach cities, regions and the nation. Film crossed cultural and national boundaries, which made it the basis for global mass culture.
When was the golden age of film?
Why was film seen as a force for cultural integration?
Silent film proved a useful medium for the many immigrants that spoke different languages.
Define the star system and why it is succesful.
The method of creating, promoting and exploiting stars in Hollywood films. Succesful because it guaranteed the quality of the product.
Name the Big Five.
1. Paramount Pictures 2. 20th Century Fox 3. Warner Bros 4. Loew's Inc. 5. Radio-Keith-Orpheum
Name the Little Three.
1. Universal 2. Columbia 3. United Artists
The renting of packages of films.
Why did the US replace France as the leader in the movie industry after 1910?
1. outbreak of WWI in which US was neutral 2. US opened offices in each foreign market which created a global distribution network 3. large American domestic market provided steady revenues 4. diverse American society prepared Hollywood filmmakers to cater to a wide range of audiences
Name the seven concerns regarding Hollywood films.
1. promotion of violence and immorality 2. vulgarity 3. emphasis on wealth and glamour 4. disruptive effect on established social relations 5. unflattering depiction of particular national and racial groups 6. product placement 7. foreignness of American movies
What is MPPDA short for and when was it founded?
Formation of Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America. 1922
When was the year sound came to film?
Describe the concerns about the moral influence of film.
- believe in film's persuasive qualities - cinema bypassed traditional authority - image as middle-class and immigrant form of entertainment - discovery by filmmakers and producers of great value of violence and sexual arousal in attracting audiences
When was the golden age of radio?
1930s/40s (= interbellum)
Define technological determinism.
Technology is the agent of social change, thus technological change occurs autonomously.
Name the two institutional forms of radio.
1. commercial model 2. public service broadcasting model
What was the impact of radio's use of music for entertainment on the music industry?
A growing demand for sheet music.
Name the three interpretations of radio's broader significance.
1. politics: media for political campaigning 2. consumerism: radio as a commercial mass medium 3. national and cultural identity: powerful influence at the national level and for particular groups - creating imagined communities - fostering and sustaining community identity
Name an important guy in Britain in the development of radio waves to carry visual images and its year.
John Logie Baird. 1920s
When did feature-film libraries become available to television?
Describe how the BBC saw the role of broadcasting.
Broadcasting has a cultural and educative role and is not merely a means of entertainment.
Which development mainly contributed to the Golden Age of TV in the US in the early 21st century?
The acceptance of fragmentation of audience.
What were the two ways the US played an international role?
1. expansion of American commercial model of tv 2. sale of programs abroad on large scale
Name a problem critics mention about TV news and public-affairs programming.
It placed demands of entertainment above journalistic criteria.
Name two challenges for tv broadcasting.
1. the need the fill 24 hours of tv 2. the need to appear to report news as it happens
Name the four consequences of the challenges for tv broadcasting.
1. careful checking of sources is discouraged 2. observers and reporters made up a proportion of program time that would be hard to justify on purely journalistic grounds 3. live TV as a feature, even if reporters didn't have anything to say 4. distinctions between important and inconsequential have become blurred
What challenged tv's community-building role?
Markets became fragmented in order to obtain largest revenues.
Name three purposes of propaganda.
1. strengthen patriotic and nationalist sentiment 2. sustain morale at home 3. wage psychological warfare against the enemy
When is propaganda most effective?
- when people don't have access to multiple sources of information - when people are discouraged from thinking critically
Teaching to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.
When began the Russian Revolution?
What were the main tasks of propaganda after the Civil War until 1922 in the SU?
- to persuade the unconverted - to remind those loyal to new regime that revolution and its results were legitimate and sacrifices should be endured for a better future
When did the Five-Year plans start and what were its goals?
1929 - to build socialism in one country - to modernize the SU economy - collectivization of agriculture - rapid industrialization
Stalin's attempt to erase all elements of capitalism in the Soviet Union. The government took all of the farms and put them under state control.
Name two reoccuring propaganda ideas during the 1930s in the SU.
1. radiant future - socialist state of abundance 2. out-of-backwardness - from tsarism to modern, industrialized economy
When did Hitler invade Soviet Union and what is this called?
1941 - Operation Barbarossa
What was the goal of propaganda in SU after Hitler tried to invade it?
The harnessing of a total population to a single-minded war effort against the nazis.
Why was film an attractive medium for propaganda?
- potential to surmount problems of illiteracy and differences in language and culture within SU - tight control over political messages that could be reproduced and exhibited in all parts of the country
What is the only acceptable style of filming called that was implemented in 1932 and what was its characteristic?
socialist realism - glorified ordinary workers as proletarian heroes
In what year did weekly movie attendances fall in US?
When did the Supreme Court rule that the film industry its vertical integration constituted of an illegal restraint on trade?
How did the movie industry deal with these adversities?
1. cooperative relationship with the tv networks 2. exploit film's relative advantages thus its technological innovation
When was the Production Code established?
When was the Production Code replaced by the ratings system?
How did Disney remain independent and become a conglomerate?
A strategy of increasing sales by introducing new products into new markets.
Why did the demand for American film rise?
1. growth of home video 2. end of state monopolies in Europe 3. rise of satellite and cable TV 4. proliferation of commercial terrestrial stations
Define proliferation and terrestrial television.
rapid increase - tv signal transmitted by radio waves
Which two factors of cinema remained the same?
1. an oligopoly of firms controls the US film market 2. these also dominate the international film market
Link the press and democracy in a statement.
The press is crucial to an informed citizenry and therefore to the health of democracy.
Name the three characteristics of objective journalism.
1. heavy dependence on official sources of information 2. respect for political authority 3. uncritical acceptance of the statements of government officals
Name two consequences of objective journalism.
1. avoidance of the problems of established poverty and racial inequality in American society 2. unquestioned support for US foreign policy during Cold War and military intervention Vietnam
Name two challenges of TV/news.
1. television network news bulletins increasingly took over the role of breaking news 2. political and cultural change
What was the consequence of the decline of family-run tv companies in the 1970s.
Profit became the only way to measure success.
Name four causes for the decline in news and in coverage of political, social, and economic issues.
1. corporate ownership 2. declining circulations 3. rise of the internet 4. fierce competition for advertising revenues
Name four consequences of the press' growing alignment wiht big business that eroded its public-service role.
1. increasingly frequent sacrifice of journalistic standards to the demands of commerce 2. decline of investigative journalism 3. reduced space for news 4. greater emphasis on popular culture