50 terms

PSY 1010: Chapter 2 Study Guide

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nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
afferent nerves
Also called sensory nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
efferent nerves
Also called motor nerves; nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body.
CNS (central nervous system)
brain and spinal cord
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
Stressors
specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being
acute stress
A temporary pattern of stressor-activated arousal with a distinct onset and limited duration.
chronic stress
stress associated with long-term problems that are beyond a person's control
Neuron
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Structure of a neuron
cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, synapse
cell body
contains nucleus
Dendrites
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Axon
A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
myelin sheath
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
agonist vs. antagonist chemicals
agonist- a neurotransmitter, drug, or other molecule that stimulates receptors to produce a desired reaction- mimics
antagonist- chemical opposing neurotransmitter- blocks
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Endorphins
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Oxytocin
hormone linked to experience of love and bonding. "tend and befriend"
EEG (electroencephalogram)
shows brain's electrical activity by positioning electrodes over the scalp
CT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
PET
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
fMRI
a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
a treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain
Forebrain
The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
Midbrain
A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.
Hindbrain
An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
Thalamus
the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
James Olds and Peter Milner
discovered a part of the hypothalamus that provides a pleasurable reward; accidentally discovered when trying to test the reticular formations of rats by placing electrodes on this region
occipital lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
temporal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
frontal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
parietal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
Broca's area
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Wernicke's area
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Roger Sperry
studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
left vs right hemisphere
-Left hemisphere is good at making quick, exact interpretations of language
-Right hemisphere excels in making inferences, modulating speech, and facilitating self-awareness
endocrine system
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Glands
Organs or tissues in the body that create chemicals that control many of our bodily functions
Hormones
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
pituitary gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.