spinning cotton thread (1791), cotton gin (1793), interchangeable parts (1798), steel plow (1837), sewing machine (1848); telegraph (1838); Steamboat (1807), Erie Canal (1825), railroad (1828), clipper ships (1845), National Road/Cumberland Road (1852);These inventions helped build a strong American economy with the cheaper and faster transportation and production. America also became more regional economically, with the breadbasket west, cotton-growing south, and manufacturing north. Laughing gas and there used as anesthetics. There was the Transcendentalist movement, and workds of Stephen F. Foster, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, Lowell, Longfellow, Whittier, Edgar Allan Poe, Herman Melville *Northerners were antislavery people, liked the Wilmot Proviso
*Southern senators block proviso
*"Fire-eaters" impassioned southerners, pro-slavery
*In 1848, the Democrats needed new guy, decided on General Lewis Cass, an 1812 veteran
*Democrats were silent on issue of slavery, but Cass not so much
*Cass loved popular sovereignty [sovereign people of territory determine slavery or not]
*People like popular sovereignty because it's democratic, politicians liked because they didn't have to pick a side
*Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor, the "hero of the Buena Vista," since Henry Clay had made too many enemies
*Whigs weaken their platform by dodging issues, and Taylor doesn't talk of slavery but owns slaves
*Anti-slavery men in the North form Free-Soil Party: publicly anti-slavery, for the Wilmot Proviso, federal aid for improvements, urged gov't homesteads for settlers, much like anti-slavery "Conscience Whigs." Slogan was "Free soil, speech, labour, and men."
*Taylor wins, because the democratic vote was split by Free-Soil Van Buren
*Gold is discovered in California, in which the California gov't isn't prepared for. Robbery claim jumping, and murder become common here. Meanwhile, Taylor secretly encourages to draft the Constitution of 1849 (excludes slavery), applied to Congress for admission into Union (California was to be free soil)
*With 15 free states & 15 slave states, what would California be?
*New Mexico & Utah were most likely to become free, which angered pro-slavery people who fought for the territories.