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actin, myosin

All types of muscle tissue have interactions between ___ and ___


___ muscle is striated and branched


the effector's response in ___ feedback is in the same direction as the initiating stimulus rather than opposite to it


involves production of heat through metabolism.


(abbreviation) is the metabolic rate of a fasting, nonstressed ECTotherm at rest at a particular temperature


(abbreviation) is the metabolic rate of a fasting, nonstressed ENDotherm at rest at a particular temperature


For an adult human female, the metabolic "costs" of pregnancy and lactation are _-_% more than when she was non-pregnant.


water consumed in one day is a ___ [reliable, poor] indicator of an animal's metabolic rate


heat production

non-shivering thermogenesis

Metabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during ___ ___


The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the ___


During the process of digestion, fats are broken down when fatty acids are detached from glycerol. In addition, proteins are digested to yield amino acids.Both involve the addition of ___ to break bonds (hydrolysis).

biotin, vitamin K

Bacteria are beneficial to animal nutrition, including that of humans. Their production of ___ and ___ _ in the large intestine is among their greatest benefits to us

9 (bile salts are produced in the liver)

Where are the agents that help emulsify fat produced?

4 (only in the lumen of the small intestine)

Where does the digestion of fats mostly occur?

5 (large intestine)

Which structure is home to bacteria that produce vitamins as by-products of their metabolism?


blood ___ increases when more energy is required by a human?


Which of the following occurs when digestion of organic molecules results in more energy-rich molecules than are immediately required by the animal?
The excess is stored as ___.


the spread of impulses from the __ node is measured by an electrocardiogram


A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute will be ___mL


___ valves are found in the mammalian heart at the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries

venae cavae

Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)? ___ ___

hydrostatic, osmotic

reason that fluid is forced FROM the bloodstream to the surrounding tissues at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries is because the ___ pressure of the blood is greater than the ___ pressure of the blood


the pressure of a fluid exerted on the walls of its container. Or, the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity.


stress or hormone concentration are causes of ___, the process of smooth muscles contracting


inadequate production of ___ appear in the lungs after 33 weeks of embryonic development. They relieve surface tension in the fluid that coats the surface of alveoli (which are small and prone to surface tension-collasping)


Which of the following is correct for a blood pressure reading of 130/80?
I. The systolic pressure is 130.
II. The diastolic pressure is 80.
III. The blood pressure during heart contraction is 80.


Human plasma proteins include which of the following?
I. fibrinogen
II. hemoglobin
III. immunoglobulin


maintenance of blood osmotic pressure is done by ___ proteins in humans.


___ is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells


A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of ___mL

stroke volume

Tidal volume in respiration is analogous to what measurement in cardiac physiology?


The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in


___ is a hormone that speeds up heart rate.


Both the eye and the respiratory tract are protected against infections by the secretion of ___ onto their surface


blood vessel dilation is affected by an ___

redness, swelling, heat

Histamines trigger dilation of nearby blood vessels, and increase in their permeability. Which of the signs of inflammation are therefore associated with histamine release?

bacterial infections

Septic shock, a systemic response including high fever and low blood pressure, can be life threatening. What causes septic shock? certain ___ ___

cytotoxic T

These cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, and they respond to class I MHC molecule-antigen complexes:


antibody production by plasma cells is the [first, second, last] line of defense against an extracellular pathogen


_ cells interacting with helper T cells are stimulated to differentiate when helper T cells release cytokines.


the term for how some antibody tools are the products of many different clones of B cells, each specific for a different epitope.


Jenner successfully used cowpox virus as a vaccine against the virus that causes smallpox. Why was he successful even though he used viruses of different kinds because there are some ___ determinants common to both pox viruses

anaphylactic shock

A patient undergoes a high level of mast cell degranulation, dilation of blood vessels, and acute drop in blood pressure. These symptoms could be caused by what?


What aspect of the immune response would a patient who has a parasitic worm infection and another patient responding to an allergen such as ragweed pollen have in common?
Both patients would have increased levels of ___.

cytotoxic T

which kind of cells do HIV not target?

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