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29 terms

APUSH VOCAB

Chapter 18 & 19
STUDY
PLAY
Cotton Gin
a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Planters
wealthy farmers with large plantations
"Necessary Evil"
A common view of slavery in the South that while morally wrong, slavery was a necessity of the southern agricultural economy.
"Positive Good"
Slavery is a good thing because it educates and cares for African Americans
"Peculiar Institution"
slavery
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Popular Sovereignty
the idea that political authority belongs to the people
Free-Soil Party
party that supported wilmot proviso
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Fugitive Slave Law
law that said you had to return runaway slaves to their owners; tension between North & South; north opposed slavery and they refused to enforce the law, especially abolitionists
Personal Liberty Law
forbade the imprisonment or runaway slaves and guaranteed that they would have jury trials.
Underground Railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Know-Nothing Party
It was an anti-immigrant party that got its nickname by their supposed response of, "I know nothing," when asked if they were in the party.
Republican Party
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Harper's Ferry
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
John C. Breckinridge
o Southern Democrat from KT in the presidential election of 1860 Buchanan's VP. Pro-slavery. Supported extension of salvery into the territories
John Bell
Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig's) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Confederate States of America
the name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Crittenden Compromise
a plan proposed in December 1860 attempting to save the Union; it would divide the western territories by using the old Missouri Compromise line
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War