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Periodic Table of Elements
Final Exam Chemistry
Terms in this set (59)
Color, hardness, temperature, odor, mass, density, state of matter, size, volume, conductivity, solubility
Change is state without changing substance itself
Ability of one chemical to react with another
Change in composition and atoms are rearranged
What is the main difference between chemical and physical changes?
Physical = easy to reverse
Chemical = difficult to reverse
Examples of Physical Changes
Melting ice, mixing salt and water, dry ice subliming,
Examples of Chemical Changes
Burning paper, burning wood, digesting an apple, lighting a candle, a wound healing, a rusting nail
Uniform, definite composition
Composition can change, can be separated physically
Pure substance, made of one type of atom, can exist as molecules (two atoms bound together), simplest form — cannot be broken down or divided chemically
Pure substance, two or more elements chemically bonded together, exist as molecules, can be separated using a chemical change
Mixture, can be composed of elements and/or compounds, not chemically bonded, uniform composition, evenly blended, "solution"
Mixture, can be composed of elements and/or compounds, not chemically bonded, no uniform composition, not evenly blended, two or more phases
protons, neutrons, electrons
What is the density and size of an atom?
Diameter = 1 x 10^-11 m, mostly empty space
Density = 1 x 10^15 g/cm^3, most mass located in the nucleus even though electrons take up a large space
Atoms are indivisible and indestructible, "atomus" = indivisible
Tiny, indestructible spheres, postulates (1) Elements are made of particles called atoms, (2) Atoms of a given element are the same (false), (3) Elements combine in whole number ratios, (4) Atoms cannot be created or destroyed (false)
Plum pudding model — negatively charged electrons dispersed throughout a positively charged mass
Gold foil experiment — alpha particles went through gold foil paper, bounced off when met protons, electrons surround a dense, positive nucleus, nucleus is very small but contains most of atom's mass
Determined mass of an electron, determined charge of an electron
Confirmed the existence of the neutron, example: hydrogen vs helium: 1 vs 2 protons, 1 to 4 atomic mass — found neutron this way, h = 0 neutrons, he = 2 neutrons
Planetary model — electrons arranged in orbits around neutron
Quantum mechanical model = mathematic model describing location and energy of an electron, electrons exist in orbitals around the nucleus
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, whole number on periodic table
Proton + nucleus, not on periodic table
Elements with the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons, and thus different masses
Example: Cl-35 vs CL-37 — both have 17 protons but different mass numbers
Weighted average of all isotopes of an element, given on periodic table
What was discovered by cathode rays?
Where are metals located on the periodic table?
Left of staircase, not including hydrogen
Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table?
Right of staircase, and also hydrogen
Where are metalloids located on the periodic table?
Along the zig zag line (4 on top, 2 on bottom)
Where are alkali metals located on the periodic table?
Far left first column
Where are alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table?
Second left column
Where are the halogens located on the periodic table?
Second to last column on the right
Where are noble gases located on the periodic table?
Far right last column
Where are transition metals located?
Middle section, group 3-12
Where are lanthanides located on the periodic table?
Top row at the bottom
Where are actinides located on the periodic table?
Bottom row beneath lanthanides
Columns on the periodic table, #1-18
Rows on the periodic table, #1-7
An atom with a charge
Ionic bonding is
Metal and nonmetal
What is a positive ion called?
What is a negative ion called?
CO3 charge 2-
SO4 charge 2-
PO4 charge 3-
ClO3 charge 1-
NO3 charge 1-
OH charge 1-
Cu+ and Cu charge 2+
Cr charge 2+ and Cr charge 3+
Hg2 charge 2+ and Hg charge 2+
Co charge 2+ and Co charge 3+
Fe charge 2+ and Fe charge 3+
Sn charge 2+ and Sn charge 4+
Mn charge 2+ and Mn charge 3+
Pb charge 2+ and Pb charge 4+
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