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The process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.

Leadership substitutes

Subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that make leaders redundant or unnecessary.

Leadership neutralizers

Subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that can interfere with a leader's actions or make it impossible for a leader to influence followers' performance.

Trait theory

A leadership theory that holds that effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics.


Relatively stable characteristics, such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior.

Initiating structure

The degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks.


The extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and show concern for employees.

Leadership style

The way a leader generally behaves toward followers.

Contingency theory

A leadership theory that states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the situation that best fits their leadership style.

Situational favorableness

The degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.

Leader-member relations

The degree to which followers respect, trust, and like their leaders.

Task structure

The degree to which the requirements of a subordinate's tasks are clearly specified.

Position power

The degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers.

Path-goal theory

A leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment.

Directive leadership

A leadership style in which the leader lets employees know precisely what is expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing tasks, schedules work, sets standards of performance, and makes sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.

Supportive leadership

A leadership style in which the leader is friendly and approachable to employees, shows concern for employees and their welfare, treats them as equals, and creates a friendly climate.

Participative leadership

A leadership style in which the leader consults employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions.

Achievement-oriented leadership

A leadership style in which the leader sets challenging goals, has high expectations of employees, and displays confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.

Situational theory

A leadership theory that states that leaders need to adjust their leadership styles to match their followers' readiness.

Worker readiness

The ability and willingness to take responsibility for directing one's behavior at work.

Normative decision theory

A theory that suggests how leaders can determine an appropriate amount of employee participation when making decisions.

Strategic leadership

The ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a positive future for an organization.

Visionary leadership

Leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and provides direction for future planning and goal setting.

Charismatic leadership

The behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers.

Ethical charismatics

Charismatic leaders who provide developmental opportunities for followers, are open to positive and negative feedback, recognize others' contributions, share information, and have moral standards that emphasize the larger interests of the group, organization, or society.

Unethical charismatics

Charismatic leaders who control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of their organizations, want to hear only positive feedback, share only information that is beneficial to themselves, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else's.

Transformational leadership

Leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interests for the good of the group.

Transactional leadership

Leadership based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.

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