31 terms

Miller and Levine Biology - Chapter 11

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Terms in this set (...)

cell division
the formation of two new cells from an existing cell
Asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
Chromosome
DNA-containing structure that carries genetic material from one generation to another
Chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
chromatin
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
cell cycle
sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
centromere
region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
centriole
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
prophase
First phase of mitosis. Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms.
metaphase
Second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
anaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform
growth factor
a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide
cyclin
one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cancer
uncontrolled cell division
tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
benign tumor
a type of tumor that does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue or to other parts of the body.
malignant tumor (cancerous tumor)
tumors that invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue.
embryo
developing stage of a multicellular organism
Differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
totipotent
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell.
Pluripotent
Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types
blasocyst
stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
stem cells
unspecialized or undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
multipotent
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells
Zygote
a fertilized egg; a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.