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Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (93)
Native American culture
1) Respect is highly valued--may avoid eye contact
2) Mothers to not talk much to their kids
3) Value learning through listening and observing rather than speaking and interacting
4) Native language speaking is discouraged until articulation is judged acceptable
5) Silence is valued--if you are speaking, you are not listening and learning
6) Quick answers undesirable--waiting to speak is more respectful and shows you thought about the question
7) May not respond to questions that are not understood
8) Public behavior tends to be restrained
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Reasons for English settlements
Mercantilism, to increase wealth and power, hoped to find silver and gold, new markets for trade.
an economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade
Economy of colonial regions
Favorable balance of trade, gave silver gold raw materials to mother country
Terms of the Navigation Acts
1) No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped from the colonies or England's Ships
2) All Vessels on those ships had to be at least 3/4's English or Colonialist
3) Colonies could only export certain materials **
(FUR, LUMBER, TOBACCO)
4) All goods being traded needed to pass through colonial or English ports (Used to tax)
A crop grown to be sold. Southern economy based off cash crops. Ex. Tabacco, Rice, Indigo
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Virginia Company; anyone who paid for their own or someone else's passage to Virginia received 50 acres of land (promoting immigration to the Virginia colony)
a revival of religious feeling and belief in the American colonies that began in the 1730s
Who was the Father of the Great Awakening
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. However, the colonists did not listen and continued to move onto Native American land
an act passed by the British, persuaded by Prime Minister, George Greenville. It required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, licence, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac. Colonists who disobeyed the law were to be tried in the vice-admiralty courts, where convictions were probable.
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury.
Why were the stamp acts repealed?
Ben Franklin goes to parliament and demands representation if thye are going to tax us. The British believed in virtual representation. As result Franklin told parliament if they don't repeal it, they will revolt.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped 18,000 lbs of valuable tea into Boston Harbor because the British East India company eliminated the tax on tea so the colonists started to buy the cheap tea, putting colonists out of business.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Jefferson embraces these ideas of Natural Rights.
Author of Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that attacked King George III. Stated that the time for Independence had come free from tyranny.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Jefferson, it drew on the concepts of John Locke. Declared that the British King had violated their unalienable rights. The Document included the protection of our natural rights to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Articles of Confederation
Drafted by John Dickinson. The Articles created a confederation of states while guaranteeing each state its "sovereignty, freedom, and independence." Under the articles, anything that wanted to be changed, all colonies would have to approve.(nothing would get done)
Land Ordinance of 1785
plan for surveying the public land west of the Appalachian mountains and north of the Ohio river that offered rich land for settlers
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
provided procedure for dividing the land into territories. Also set requirements for the admission of new states which seemed to overlook Native American Land claims
Three basic stages for becoming a state
1.)Congress will appoint a Governor and judges
2.)When a territory had 5,000 voting residents, the settlers could write a temporary constitution and elect their own government
3.)When the total population of a territory reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the settlers could write a state constitution, which had to be approved by Congress before it was granted statehood
two house Congress to satisfy both small and large states. Each state would get equal representation in the senate voted in by the state legislature.The size of the population of each state would determine its representation in the House of Reps voted in by voters of each state.
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
Two house legislature
Separation of powers
an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies. Also checks and balances were used to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful
supporters of a strong central government that supported the constitution. Made up of wealthy merchants, planters,lawyers, more educated
Opposed the constitution, wanted strong state governments. Made up of mostly poor farmers that were uneducated. Believed the constitution took away too may rights.
Written by Hamilton John Jay & James Madison in support for the Constitution
Hamilton's economic plan
Pay foreign debt, protective tariff to protect american businesses, Excise tax on certain USA made products, assume state debts, establish national bank.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolution
By Jefferson and Madison, after the Alien and Sedation Act was passed, introduced the principle of nullification, that states had the right to consider void any act of congress they deemed unconstitutional. No other state adopted the principle of nullification.
Election of 1800
Jefferson(Democratic-Republican)v.Adams(Federalists). Jefferson defeated Adams but got the same number of electoral votes at Burr. Hamilton persuaded the Federalists to cast blank votes to give Jefferson a majority. Burr became vp.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review, the ability of the supreme court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land, map a route to the Pacific, and learn about the natives. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase. Laying the foundations for westward expansion.
native american woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition
British seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into the British navy.
Embargo Act of 1807
a ban on exporting goods to other countries. Jefferson believed it would hurt Britain and other European powers, but ended up hurting us more.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri was admitted as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana territory was split so that states above the 36 30' north latitute was a free state, any state below the line was a slave state.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson. Clay was then made Secretary of state
a practice of giving government jobs to his/her's supporters.
Andrew Jackson v. Native Americans
Native American removal, tribes moved to land west of the Mississippi.
Andrew Jackson v. Bank of the Unites States
Believed it was a monopoly overrunning small banks. Blamed for the Panic of 1819. Stops depositing federal funds and sets up pet banks
Andrew Jackson v. John Marshall
President Jackson refused to support the Supreme Court decision in which Worcester v. Georgia where John Marshall ruled that Georgia was not allowed regulate or invade the Cherokee land.He was quoted as saying "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it." John Marshall was the US Supreme Court Justice who made the decision.
state banks that received deposits of federal funds because of their loyalty to the democratic party and Jackson/
states could choose to call a law void if they deemed it unconstitutional.
goal of the US to expand all the way to the Pacific. Some thought it was God's will.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the Oregon territory from Britain or else they will fight.
Second Great Awakening
a revival of religious feeling and belief from the 1800s to the 1840s. Emphasized personal salvation. Brought Christianity to enslaved African Americans
Reform movements in prison and asylums
led by Dorothea Dix. Had the Massachusetts legislature pass a law to improve conditions, 9 other states set up public hospitals for the mentally ill
Reform movements in schools
Mann established training programs and instituted curriculum reforms. also doubled the money spent on schools
Mormons - Church of Latter-Day Saints
1823, founder Joseph Smith (led to Golden Tablets by an angel, made Book of Mormon).polygamy, no separation of church and state
Smith and followers driven out of NY because of public's alarm of their teachings, moved to Illinois where Smith was murdered. Brigham Young, led followers to Utah to seek refuge to practice their faith. Mormon trek demonstrate American belief that God intended us to reach the Pacific coast and populate the whole of the continent (Even though Mexico owned most of western land at this time)
Southern economy before the Civil War
Dependent on cash crop and slaves
Northern economy before the Civil War
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2)lands acquired from Mexico, popular sovereignty, (3) $10 million to Texas if they gave up claim to lands in New Mexico and east of the Rio Grande. (4) Land Disputed by Texas and New Mexico went to New Mexico (5) The abolition of SLAVE TRADE in DC. (6) more effective fugitive slave law.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. Southerners moves into Kansas to sway the vote slavery. New England Emigrant Aid Company paid for transportation of anti-slavery settlers.
1858 Senate Debate, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas, it doesn't matter if the state is told to be slave or not slave, if the state wants to, people have a lawful right to introduce or exclude slavery
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided 1.)US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional 2.)slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process 3.) Dred Scott had no right to sue, he was not a citizen, but was property.
Abraham Lincoln and slavery
Did not want to abolish slavery, but did not want it to spread into new territories.
Any land acquired from Mexico should be slavery-free. Correspondence the south wanted to succeed from the union
Raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown led a raid to seize the federal Arsenal, distribute the captured arms of slaves in the area, and to start a slave uprising.
Ten Percent Plan
Lincolns plan to allow southern states back into the union. In his plan, all confederates would be pardon except the high ranking officials that got disenfranchised. After 10% of those on the 1860 voting list took an oath of allegiance into the union, a confederate state could form a new state government and regain representation.
prohibited blacks from carrying weapons, serving in jury's, testifying against whites, marrying whites, traveling without permits, forbidden to own land.
Makes slavery illegal
made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country. All were entitled to equal protection of the law, and no state could deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law
Compromise of 1877
1.)the withdraw of federal troops from Louisiana + south Carolina. (2/3 southern states that Republicans still govern) 2.) the democrats wanted federal money to build a railroad from Texas to the west coast + improve bridges, roads, harbors. 3.)Hayes to appoint a conservative southern cabinet
Dawes Severalty Act
Americanized the Native Americans by forcing the drop of heritage, roots, and reservations to split into different lands
William Jennings Bryan - Cross of Gold
Delivered the "Cross of Gold" speech at the 1896 Democratic National Convention; advocate for bimetallism
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt Democratic politicians in defrauding the city.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal." As long as the facilities were the same. "Did not violate 14th amendment'
Growth of cities mostly because immigrants moved there because it was cheaper to live and there were factories that hired unskilled laborers
Journalists who wrote about the problems in American Society. FDR calls them this.
citizens can propose s new law directly on the ballot
allows citizens to approve or reject a law
allows voters to remove public officials from office.
Journalist and photographer describes the conditions faced by poor urban residents in his book HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES
wrote The Jungle that brought attention to the meat packing industry. Lead to the Meat Inspection Act
a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native cultures.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899 to imperialsts nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the US. No single nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China
exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers
was sent to Cuba to retrieve american citizens in danger from fighting and to protect american property, after the publication of the de Lome letter, when McKinley was called weak, American resentment toward Spain turned to outrage. This ship blew up in Havana's harbor.at the time no one knew why the ship blew up, but the Americans claim the Spanish did it.
Splendid Little War
Refers to Spanish American War (the Cuban front) since the war only lasted 15 weeks and cost less than other American Wars. In addition, fewer lives were lost.
Outcome of the Spanish-American War
-The U.S gained Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Hawaii.
-Spain acknowledges Cuba's independence and gains $20 million in losses
-The U.S. takes control of Cuba for 3 years to help them transition to independence, but forces Cuba to agree to 3 things (Platt Amendment)
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