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AP Biology Vocab 1
Terms in this set (81)
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio.
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance.
An element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts.
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
An electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electrical charge), found in the nucleus of an atom.
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom.
A subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass.
The electrons in the outermost electron shell.
The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence elcetrons.
Polar Covalent Bonds
A type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A negatively charged ion.
An ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C.
A homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances.
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A solution in which water is the solvent.
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Having an affinity for water.
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6.
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers.
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
A functional group important in energy transfer.
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
Saturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction.
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
Beta Pleated Sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
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