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Arts and Humanities
Social and Political Philosophy
Fundamentalist Socialism - Classical Marxism
Terms in this set (27)
What does Classical Marxism refer to?
The writings of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels.
What was this the first form of socialism to do?
Set out its analysis in detail.
Utopian Socialism is an ideal society that is based on socialist ideals like Owen and Fourier
Who actually coined the term utopian socialism?
Marx to denote vagueness and superficiality of their views.
Who were the definitive authors of fundamentalist socialism?
Marx and Engels.
What did Marx and Engels make clear?
That capitalism must disappear before socialism, and then communism, could be established.
What did Marx and Engels proclaim that capitalism promoted?
Exploitation, alienation, and the oppression of one class by another, and was therefore at odds with key socialist principles such as fraternity, solidarity and equality.
Support or sympathy; unity
What did M and E argue about history?
It was a series of stages, drawing from the philosophy of Friedrich Hegel 1770-1831, moving towards an inevitable and final destination.
(n.) the theory that each period of history has its own unique beliefs and values and can only be understood in its historical context
What did Hegel claim there was within each historical stage?
An intellectual clash described as dialectic.
When does dialectic occur in history?
When the official narrative about a society's aims and character, as put forward by its ruling classes, no longer corresponded to the perceptions of the majority, who then experienced alienation.
For Hegel, what did dialectic eventually spawn?
A new stage of history that would survive until the new wave of alienation
How did Marx and Engels adjust Hegel's historicism?
The prevailing mentality would always be fedinef by economics and the way that society's resources were generated and dispersed (the mode of production). History was a series of stages - historical materialism.
the assumption that material forces are the prime movers of history and politics; a key philosophical tenet of Marxism
In Marx and Engel's adjustment to historicism, what was dialectic?
A clash of economic interests - dialectical materialism.
Describe dialectical materialism
One particular class would be economically dominant while others were exploited for economic purposes. It was this that led them to believe that capitalism was
Why did dialectical materialism lead Marx and Engels to believe that capitalism was 'historically doomed'?
Given the class consciousness it would produce among an economically exploited and therefore alienated workforce.
Describe historical materialism and dialectical change according to Marx and Engels in 10 brief stages.
1. Primitive societies with no economic organisation.
2. Slave based societies.
3. Feudal societies. (land owned by monarch is leased to lords, tenants and serfs)
5. Emergence of proletariat and class consciousness.
6. Revolution and destruction of capitalism.
8. Withering away of socialist state.
10. End of history
What was the Marx-Engels philosophy heavily shaped by?
Belief in revolution.
Why was Classical Marxism revolutionist?
They argued that when capitalism became unsustainable, it was necessary to 'smash' capitalism via revolutionary violence, and replace it with an alternative.
Did Marx and Engels think that revolutionary action could be accomplished?
Not peacefully within existing liberal political systems such as those present in the UK or USA. These states were 'servants' of the very economic system that socialism must destroy.
What did Marx and Engels believe about evolutionary socialism?
It was an inherent contradiction
What did they believe would be essential to secure socialist views?
A new economy and a new state than the liberal state.
In response to the Liberal state, what did Marx and Engels promise of the new state?
The 'dictatorship of the proletariat' would obliterate all traces of liberal capitalism values and pave the way for a stateless communist society based on common ownership. This would be so flawless that it would represent the peak of human achievement - the 'end of history'.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Key Thinker 5 - Anthony Giddens 1938-
Debate 3 - Is Marxism Redundant?
Key Thinker 1 - Max Stirner 1806-56
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