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Research Methods
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Terms in this set (35)
hindsight bias
after learning the outcome of an event, many people believe that they could have predicted that very outcome
theory
explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events
hypothesis
testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject, or revise the theory
Research process
theory, hypothesis, research, repeat
descriptive methods
observe and record behavior;
case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation
case study
a technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles
survey
technique for determining the self-reported attitudes, opinions, or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people
random sample
if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample
naturalistic observation
observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and humans in their natural environment
correlation
when one trait or behavior accompanies another;
can show if one variable predicts the other
experiment
show cause and effect relationships;
independent variable is manipulated;
extraneous factors are controlled;
participants are randomly assigned
ex post facto research
type of correlational research in which the researcher compares groups of people that were pre-assigned to groups
correlation coefficient
statistical measure of the relationship between two variables and thus tells us how well either factor predicts the other
scatterplot
graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables;
slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship
illusory correlation
perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists
spurious correlation
a correlation between two variables that does not result from any direct relation between them but instead from their relation to other variables
operational definitions
specify precisely how variables will be measured
population
anyone who could be in your study; the overall group you are hoping to apply your results to
sample
the people who are actually in your study
stratified sampling
when the percentage of people in your population is matched in your sample
cluster sampling
when you pick groups of people instead of individual people
systematic sampling
when you pick every Nth person off a list
double blind procedure
researcher and participants do not know which group they are in
measures of central tendency
focus on majority;
mean, median, mode
measures of variability
take into account outliers;
range, variance, standard deviation
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
variance
the average of the squared deviations from the mean
normal curve
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data;
measures of central tendency are the same
inferential statistics
checks to see if and how frequently results were due to chance and how largely you can generalize your results;
yield p values (smaller the better)
statistical significance
if a p value is less than or equal to .05
informed consent
you have to give permission to participate and know what you are agreeing to do in a research study
deception
when a researcher does not reveal something or the purpose or lies to the participants about an aspect of the study because it would ruin the results
debriefing
at the end of the study the researcher must tell the participants what the truth about the study is and what you did not tell them; also must leave contact info
withdrawal
participants must be able to withdraw from the study at any time without negative consequences
protection of privacy
personal information must be anonymous or confidential
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