Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (90)
The lowest temperature required to initiate self-sustained combustion of a substance without external ignition source of heat.
Temperature at which sufficient vapor is given off to continue burning after ignition.
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture with air.
Oxygen, Fuel, Heat
Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, Uninhibited chain reaction
4 primary fire extinguishing
methods and briefly describe each
Cool - Apply water
Smother - Apply CO2, AFFF, APC
Starve - Secure or remove fuel source, jettison burning material overboard
Interrupt Combustion - Halon 1301, PKP
What are the three methods of heat transfer?
4 STAGES of Fire Life Cycle
growth, flashover, fully developed fire, and decay
4 Different Classes of Fire
Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta
Chemical: Mixing chemicals such as acid and water in a manner that produces heat
Spontaneous Ignition: Heating produced by organic materials with no external source of heat (Oily rags)
Mechanical Friction: Heat produced when 2 objects rubbing together (Dry Bearings)
Compressed Air: Diesel combustion
Electrical: High currents, shorts or overloads
Static Charge/Discharge: Spark produces heat when static is discharged to ground
Solar: radiant heat
What is the purpose of Anti-Flash Clothing?
Intended to provide protection to head, lower face, neck, hands, and wrist from transient elevated temperatures and high explosive weapon flashes
Which NSTM provides you with basic information about personnel protective equipment?
NSTM 077 - Personnel Protective Equipment
Portable CO2 Extinguisher Characteristcs
15 lbs of CO2.
Effective range 4-6 feet.
Will last approximately 40 seconds of continuous use.
Weighs about 15 lbs
Portable PKP Extinguisher Characteristic
18 and 27 lbs cylinders.
Effective range 18 lb- 19 feet, 27 lb- 21 feet.
Will last approximately 10-11 seconds of
27lbs are located in the main space
Portable AFFF Extinguisher Characteristic
2.5 gallons pre-mixed solution of AFFF concentrate and fresh water
Effective range: 15 feet and decreases as pressure decreases.
Will last approximately 60 seconds of continuous use
Fire Station Characteristics
1-1/2in Fireplugs for frigates and smaller
Fireplugs required to reach any weather deck area or below deck from at least 2 stations w/ 50 feet of hose.
2-1/2in fireplugs for ships larger than frigate
Fireplugs required to reach any weather deck area or any area of lower decks from at least 2 stations w/100 feet of hose.
All fireplugs and handwheels painted red and identified by three number locator (See NSTM 079, Fig 079-21-5)
Wye-gate attached to plug with one hose attached to wye-gate. Other hose connection left open
Spanner wrenches, inventory placard, hoses stowed neatly
Portable Exothermic Cutting Unit
Metal storage container (portable).
Rod striker assembly.
40 cu ft industrial grade oxygen cylinder.
Oxygen regulator (preset to 80 psi).
Rechargeable battery (12) volt
Can not be used in a flammable or explosive atmosphere
As long as oxygen is supplied, the rod will burn
Portable Hydraulic Access and Rescue System (PHARS)
4 HP Yanmar Diesel engine and 5000 psig
- Hose reel contains 100 ft of hose
- Tools provided: hydraulic ram, cutter, and spreader
- Will run on JP-4, JP-5,
1. 12 V rechargeable battery supply
Multiple batteries per kit
Can also use other 12 V source w/ jumper cables
2. 8 foot cable from pack to tool.
3. Tools provided: mechanical ram, cutter,spreader, Sawzall, light.
4. One person carry with backpack
Safety Considerations for the PECU
Operator must wear protective clothing
Eye & face protection
Leather welder's jacket
Use in well ventilated area or breathing protection must be used.
Blows hot molten metal a considerable distance
Ram Fan Characteristics
Supplied using an 1½ inch fire hose
2000 cfm with 150 psi & 10" duct
Explosion proof with grounding clamp
Box Fan Characteristics
Door bars and hooks
AFFF Inline Eductor Characteristics
Located in DCRS's as per AEL, outside DCRS IAW ship's instruction.
Needs a minimum of 100 psi firemain to produce a 3% or 6% foam discharge.
Eductor is sensitive to back pressure:
No more than 3 - 50' lengths of discharge hose if on the same deck or going up one deck.
A max. of 6 - 50' hoses going down one or more decks.
No more than 1 - 50' hose between the fireplug and
Flying Squad Manning
Rapid Responders (2)
Team Members (3)
Principles of Investigation
a. Know the ship
b. Investigate thoroughly
c. Investigate cautiously
d. Report findings
e. Repeat investigation
f. Never lose control of a watertight fitting
g. Re-secure compartments after leaving them
h. Look for hidden damage.
What are the procedures involved in damage investigation?
a. Operate in Pairs.
b. Search all surrounding / boundary areas for fire, damage and personnel casualties.
c. Monitor fire and smoke boundaries.
d. Investigate thoroughly, cautiously, report to RPL and repeat until directed to stop.
Describe the purpose(s) of the
Respond immediately to fire alarms when repair parties are not available.
Extinguish fires effectively without disrupting normal ship operations.
Control fires until ongoing sensitive critical evolutions can be terminated and GQ stations are ready.
Inport Emergency Team
The IET is an effective fire fighting force
Including machinery space fires
Considerations made for cold iron, cold iron with flammable liquid systems running, aux steaming and operation of main engines.
Must be capable of effectively controlling flooding and its possible effects, as well as any other condition described in the Emergency Bills.
The Minimum Manning of the IET
1 Fire Marshal / Scene Leader RRT
1 Nozzleman "Attack Team"
2 Hosemen "Attack Team"
2 Investigators RRT
1 Talker / Plotter
1 Electrician RRT
Condition II Damage Control
Allows a significant increase in response without disrupting tactical watchstations
Minimum manning for Condition II DC:
DC Central, 1 - DCRS, 1 - BDS
Some reasons for going to Condition II DC:
If the Flying Squad cannot handle the situation
Ship's survivability affected
More than one space involved
On Scene Leader
On Scene Leader - in charge at the scene of the fire.
a. Assess the extent of the fire.
b. Determine firefighting agent to be used.
c. Determine method and direction of attack.
d. CONTROL the fire party.
e. Establish communications.
f. Determine PPE requirements.
Attack Team Leader
-May be the nozzleman or a separate individual
-A separate individual is necessary if a NFTI is used.
-When two hoses attack the fire together, the ATL directs both
-If two hoses attack a fire independently, you need two ATLs
a. Operate in Pairs.
-one may report while other takes initial actions
b. Carry only necessary equipment
c. CONSTANTLY search all surrounding areas
d. Monitor fire and smoke boundaries.
e. Follow core principles of Investigation:
1. Rapid but cautious
3. Report to RPL
4. REPEAT until directed to stop
WHAT CONSTITUTES A PRIMARY FIRE BOUNDARY AND WHAT IS THE GOAL BEHIND SETTING THEM?
ANY SOLID PHYSICAL BOUNDARY
IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDING ALL SIX SIDES OF THE AFFECTED SPACE
PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE
WHERE CAN YOU GET ADDITIONAL PERSONNEL
TO ASSIST IN SETTING FIRE BOUNDARIES?
AT SEA: REPAIR LOCKERS
INPORT: MUSTER POINT
"ON BOARD=ON DUTY"
WHAT ACTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN BY A BOUNDARYMAN TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE?
PROVIDE LOCAL COOLING
CLOSE ALL ACCESSES
WHO AUTHORIZES OPENING THE ENCLOSURE COVER OF A PIECE OF FIRE AFFECTED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT?
The person in charge at the scene.
CO's permission is not required
Except for SWBDs
Primary FIRE BOUNDARIES
ANY physical boundary can be a primary fire boundary (FB)
Generally set at fire zone bulkheads or watertight subdivisions
Minimum fume-tight for Main Space Fire
All six sides of affected space
Bulkheads, overhead and deck closest to the fire.
Primary emphasis must be on vertical boundary
3 - 4 minutes fire could spread to the space above the fire (post flashover)
It should be the repair party leader's decision to man fire boundaries with charged hoses.
Secondary Fire Boundaries
Next bulkhead, overhead and deck outside the primary boundary
Manned when fire spreads past primary boundaries
ALL combustibles away from boundary
To prevent rapid steam build-up and increased risk of steam burns, the firefighter should use initial bursts of water which may be as short as 1-2 seconds
The pattern should be about 4 feet in diameter
All accesses, maintain Zebra
May be manned by a single person with a 11/2 inch hose
SCBA worn by boundarymen as required
Used to contain smoke
Set by closing doors and hatches
Smoke curtains and smoke blankets can be used to maintain smoke boundaries
SMOKE CONTROL ZONE
Area between primary and secondary smoke boundaries when the access to the fire space is opened by the attack team, smoke will be trapped in the smoke control zone
Breathing device required in smoke control zone
SPACE ISOLATION types
Lighting / Ventilation
ON-SCENE LEADER (OSL)
Normally located outside the primary fire boundary
Communicates with the Repair Party Leader
Sizes up the fire
Determines method of attack
Determines protective clothing requirements
Determines if active desmoking is required
Monitors hose team reliefs
Directs electrical isolation
Controlling the Hose
One person can operate an 11/2 inch hose in initial attack
Sustained operation requires a minimum of 2 hose handlers in addition to the nozzleman (requirements increase based on hose length and number of turns)
Two people can operate a 21/2 inch hose in initial attack
Sustained operation requires a minimum of 4 hose handlers in addition to the nozzleman (requirements increase based on hose length and number of turns)
Must direct the stream where desired
Must do so with the appropriate pattern
Use the appropriate flow rate
The correct way for a nozzleman to handle a nozzle is the method which permits him to accomplish his mission in the most physically comfortable manner
Nozzle control is critical
Charging the Hose
Take hose completely off camel back
Advance to nearest location possible to affected space prior to charging
Charge hose and check for leaks
May be charged while still on the reel
Experience has shown that hoses expand when
charged, causing difficulty removing from hose reel
Tending the Hose
Attack hose may be left in fire affected space during relief process
Team Leader responsible for informing OSL of nozzle location and space conditions
It is NOT NECESSARY to close the plug valve while doing so
Straight stream / Used in direct attack.
Also good to penetrate and break up burned Class (A) material for overhaul. (100 ft at 100PSI)
Narrow angle fog / (30 Degrees) General firefighting pattern.
Good for providing a "push" to flame fronts (50 feet at 100 PSI)
Medium Angle fog / (60 Degrees)
Used to interrupt the thermal layer in the roll over stage of a fire
Wide angle fog / (90 Degrees)
Good heat absorption, used for personnel protection (5-10 feet at 100 PSI)
Position firefighters on the non-hinged side of door, hoseline ready. Stay low!
When door is opened, if fire shows or rolls out, direct water fog at the doorway overhead for cooling and control of escaping gases.
When conditions permit, Team Leader enter the space and assess conditions. Remain low!
If mission requirements dictate rapid entry, crawling into the space may be required.
Sweep deck with hose stream to clear debris, cool hot surfaces and burning materials, prevent burns and damage to hose lines.
Access gear may be required to open hot &/or jammed fittings.
Hose advancement within and from a vertical trunk is an extremely hazardous operation.
Risk of falling, compounded when wearing firefighting PPE
Safety lines may be needed to reduce this risk
Primary attack hose is advanced down the trunk while a secondary attack hose may be positioned at the top of the trunk to augment the primary attack hose as necessary
Preferred method is to lower the uncharged hose down the trunk to the desired level.
The nozzleman then descends the trunk, confirms the nozzle is still closed and calls for the hose to be charged.
Short bursts (several seconds) of water with a narrow angle fog or straight stream nozzle pattern onto the seat of the fire.
The nozzle man should occasionally pause and listen for noise to help locate fire. After the steam has subsided, water is again applied in a short burst.
Water should only be used when the firefighter is faced with the fire or when the firefighter can not approach closer due to radiant heat.
Overhead gases are burning
Seat of fire is obstructed
Multiple seats of fire present
Delay or prevent flashover during growth stage.
Entry can be made but direct access cannot be gained safely to apply water to seat of fire.....
Adjust the nozzle to medium angle (60 degree) pattern and point the nozzle upward approximately 45 degrees above horizontal.
Apply a short fog burst (2 to 3 seconds) with bail handle fully open into the upper gas layer followed by a 2 to 3 second pause
When heat or other conditions deny access to space
May improve condition to permit reentry for direct attack.
To cool space, apply water fog into space from a cracked open access or hole cut in the deck.
Follow immediately with direct attack
Use minimum amount of water to control /extinguish the fire in order to minimize steam formation and affect on stability.
x 1 Min= 14 Cu Ft. & 760 lbs.
x 5 Min= 70 Cubic ft & 3800 lbs
Additional option to consider when topside or in large area that opens to weather
Cut hole in access above fire.
Minimum of 12in x 12in
Must be wearing full Firefighting Ensemble including SCBA
Authorized for ALL classes of fire
Used to improve conditions in the smoke control zone
OSL discretion if needed, requests from RPL
RPL approves and directs efforts
Desmoking team implements
Smoke/Fire Boundaries are set
Prepare desmoking flow path
Rig portable exhaust blowers
and create low pressure area
Supply make-up air (ship maneuvering may be required)
During the Flammable Liquid Leak/Main Space Fire scenario AFFF bilge sprinklers are operated at what points?
Leak: 1 minute (minimum)
Fire: Until fire is out or space evacuated
Evacuation: Not to exceed 4 minutes
Prior to re-entry: 2 minutes
How should the ventilation be configured
in the affected engineering space during
a Class "B" fire, with watchstanders in the space?
NEGATIVE (Surrounding spaces will be POSITIVE)
What information should be turned over to the
Repair 5 Locker Leader from the senior
watchstander evacuating the engineering space?
Location/size of the flammable liquid leak
Location/size of the fire
Was leak isolated?
Status of personnel
Status of Halon/AFFF bilge sprinkling
Recommended re-entry route
How can Halon effectiveness be determined following a class Bravo fire extinguishment?
Temperature of bulkheads near the desired access.
Monitoring exhaust vent discharge for smoke color.
Visual inspection through EOS/Escape trunk window.
Flammable Liquid Leak
Set Negative or Exhaust ventilation in the affected space
Report of Class Bravo Fire
Set Negative or Exhaust ventilation in the affected space
Set Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in surrounding spaces
Secure ventilation in affected space
Ventilation will secure automatically if space is protected by Halon or HFP
Prior to Space Reentry
Set Negative or Exhaust ventilation in the affected space for a minimum of 15 minutes after 15 minute Halon or HFP soak time
Continue negative/exhaust ventilation during reentry, through overhaul
Maintain Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) in the Smoke Control Zone
What are the items on the re-entry check list?
How does DCA determine of Halon is Good or Bad
TEMPERATURE OF BOUNDARIES
If the temperature increases by 50° or more, in the same exact spot on the bulkhead or deck, the fire may not have been extinguished or has reflashed
EXHAUST VENT DISCHARGE SMOKE
White smoke or no smoke indicates the fire has been extinguished
Monitor conditions through the viewport in the escape trunk and/or main access or enclosed operating station
What do you if Halon is Good ?
Halon Good (effective)
Allow 15 minutes Halon soak time
Report fire contained
After Halon soak time, operate exhaust ventilation minimum 15 minutes prior to reentry
Leave running through overhaul
Operate AFFF sprinkling for 2 minutes before re-entry
Can be done the last 2 min of ventilation
What are the requirements for Re-Entry during a Halon Good
Assessment team - Minimum two protected (SCBA & FFE) fire party members with AFFF extinguisher
Select re-entry access not obstructed by fire
Operate exhaust ventilation during re-entry
Have standby AFFF hose charged and manned
Mech Isolation must be complete
Elec Isolation may be in progress
Fire Boundaries shall be established
What are the requirements for Re-Entry during a Water Mist Good
15 minute soak time not required
Minimum two fire party members with AFFF extinguishers
What are the requirements for Re-Entry during a HFP Good
If ventilation is not available, wait 30 minutes after HFP soak time before reentering the space
Determine HF level in the space after 15 minute ventilation and 2 minute AFFF bilge sprinkling
Space Re-entry: AFFF sprinkling only or Agent BAD (Ineffective)
Initiate indirect attack
Direct a water fog high within the space to help thermally manage the conditions in the space
Apply water fog continuously for approximately 5 - 10 minutes for the initial attack
Stop the water flow and assess conditions
After at least five minutes of indirect attack and if no steam overpressure exists:
Re-establish exhaust ventilation in accordance with 555-10.9.6.c (if operable)
Activate AFFF bilge sprinkling for two minutes
Crack open the access door or hatch and determine HF level using a Draeger Tube
In "Agent Bad" instances, the escape trunk will be preferable to a topside access for reentry
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Vertical Trunk Entry
Allows entry and attack from a more tenable location - descent through thermal layer no longer required
Reduced possibility of Back draft explosion
Eliminates the spread of heat, smoke and combustible gases onto DC Deck
Firefighters unable to use their hands when exiting (due to burns)
Risk of falling
Risk of fire and smoke entering trunk
Difficulties involved with extracting incapacitated personnel from escape trunk
What are Shipboard Installed FF System
Fixed CO2 flooding system
Range Guard and Gaylord
Seawater Sprinkling Systems
What is the function of 1301
extinguish fires which are beyond the scope of manual firefighting equipment, and where abandonment of the space is necessary
Halon 1301 System Components
Halon 1301 cylinders
5 lb. CO2 actuators
flexible 1/4-inch Cu-Ni tubing connections with a 2-1/2-inch loop
flexible discharge hoses
a time delay device
time delay device bypass valve
CO2 actuation system piping
Halon discharge piping
Halon 1301 System Components (Drawing)
Halon 1301 Operating Characteristics
Usually at least two actuation stations
Audible & Visual alarms upon activation
A Time Delay Device allows for ventilation & equipment to secure and personnel to egress
60 seconds for large spaces, 30 seconds for small
Valve installed to bypass the TDD if necessary
Ventilation & equipment secured by a Pressure Switch
Halon 1301 Characteristics
Extinguishes fire by interrupting the Uninhibited Chemical Chain Reaction
5 times denser than air
When exposed to temps >9000F, Hydrogen Fluoride & Hydrogen Bromide are produced
Configured the same as the Halon system
Concentration in manned space is 8.5%
Concentration in unmanned space is 9.5%
Used where water mist is impractical or ineffective
Used in low flashpoint stowage such as Mogas or alcohol.
HFP decomposes to hydrogen flouride at 1300 deg F
HIGH PRESSURE WATER MIST Characteristics
1000 PSI through 200 micron nozzles
Extinguish the fire by cooling
Each storage tank is sized to provide flow to the largest protected space for at least 15 minutes continuous operation
Minimal damage to electrical equipment
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) System Characteristics
Used to protect unmanned compartments from flammable liquid fires
Some systems may be used to protect machinery spacesInert gas, odorless, colorless, heavier than air
Effective and preferred agent for Class "C" fires
Effective agent for Class "B" fires
IF NO HALON DISCHARGE ALARM IS RECEIVED 70 SECONDS FOLLOWING SYSTEM ACTIVATION, WHAT ACTION SHOULD BE TAKEN?
THE OPERATOR MUST OPEN THE TIME DELAY BYPASS VALVE
WHAT DO EACH OF THE HALON SYSTEM STATUS LIGHTS INDICATE?
WHITE - POWER AVAILABLE TO ALARM SYSTEM
AMBER - SYSTEM ACTIVATION HAS OCCURRED
RED - HALON DISCHARGE
WHAT RULES APPLY WITH RESPECT TO THE DISCHARGE OF AFFF INTO THE SEA WHEN:
INPORT / 3NM FROM LAND?
3 -12 NM FROM LAND?
>12 NM FROM LAND?
IF SHIP SPEED IS > 12 KTS
DISCHARGE AT WILL
WHAT THREE ACTIONS RESULT FROM THE ACTIVATION OF THE MASTER SOPV IN THE BALANCED PROPORTIONER AFFF SYSTEM?
AFFF CONCENTRATE PUMP STARTS
HYCHECK VALVE OPENS
POWERCHECK VALVE OPENS.
What size nozzle is required on flight deck?
125 GPM Vari-nozzle
(unless back-up hose is fed from In-line
eductor - then 95GPM)
How many hoses are required on or near the flight deck?
Crash and Rescue Team Hose Team Manning
3 persons minimum per 1 ½" hose
5 persons minimum per 2 ½" hose
Plugman may act as Hoseman
Minimum Requirements For Primary Crash and Salvage Fire Team
2 Rescue Persons (Hotsuitmen)
Primary duty is to save personnel
2 AFFF hose teams
Plugman (For LPD/LSD the Plugman
Is replaced by an AFFF Station Operator)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
fire science chapter 17 fire control
Chapter 22: Fire Suppression
Chapter 15 Fire Control
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 24 - Pre-incident Planning
Chapter 23: Pre Incident Planning
EMT/Fire fighting Vocabulary