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Arts and Humanities
Civil-Military Relations 6 Weeks
Terms in this set (34)
Why do we have a military?
1. To stop threats to the state ( Marshall- liberal democracy, capitalism hasn't solved world problems)
What is Civil- Military Relations
Academic field of study sought to understanding the role of the military from the different viewpoints of stakeholders in the military sustainment process.
Why is CMR Important
National Security Imperative- Political rear- homeland and the will of the American people.
What are the guidelines for senior military officers serving in the political-military arena
1. They must adamantly manifest nonpartisan behavior and attitudes while on active service.
2. Must be transparent and honest when dealing with their constitutional masters in the Congress.
3. Must be expert in their political military roles.
Why don't senior officers just quit if they don't agree with the political class
1. The nation needs senior military flag officers who are respectful of civilian authority, principled in their behavior, understand strategy and the international environment, and masters of U.S. national security and governance.
2. Getting CMR right is crucial to our democracy
What are the 5 independent relationships in CMR?
1. Civilian Elites and Military Leaders
2. Military institutions and American Society
3. Military leaders and their professions
4. Civilian elite interactions
5. Influential Civilian Elites and American Society
What is the objective of CMR?
To maximize military security at the least sacrifice of other social values
military must be disciplined and obedient, balance technology and devise doctrines.
military must be shaped by the social forces, ideologies and institutions that are dominant in the society they protect
1. Maximizes civilian control
2. military is like the civilian population- all civilians from all civilian society
3. military participation and institutional, class and constitutional politics.
1. Officer cops agree to serve the state with minimum political influence.
2. represents states goals, highly trained and purpose to do state bidding, does not participate in policy. Aligns with functional imperative
What three things make the officer corps a profession?
expertise of the officer corps
Expects in the management of violence- Licensed
Responsibility of the Officer Corps
must develop knowledge and use it only on behalf of the state
corporateness of the officer corps
They are a group apart from the society they serve.
- "military mind"- desire to avoid initiating conflict unless victory is assured
CMR is one aspect of what
National Security Policy
What is Military Security Policy
activities designed to minimize or neutralize efforts to weaken or destroy the nation by armed forces operating outside it's institution and territorial confines
Immediate means taken to meet the security threat
What are the three issues of the operating level
1. qualitative issues of size, recruitment and supply of military forces
2. qualitative issues of the organization, composition, equipment and deployment of the military forces
3. Dynamic issues of utilization of military forces.
What is institutional Level
The manner in which operational policy is formulated and executed.
Why does Huntington focus on the relation of the officer corps to the state?
Thought that the officer corps is the active directing element of the military structure, responsible for military security of society
Does the state have a responsibility to the military
Yes, provide resources
What makes the military officer an expert in the management of violence?
Organizing and equipping the force, planning for its use, and the direction of the force in and out of combat.
What is the basic responsibility of an officer?
Society insists that the management of violence be utilized only for socially approved purposes.
What distinguishes the officer and the enlisted man?
1. Enlisted men are specialist in the application of violence. Officers manage violence.
2. Enlisted ranks reflect varying aptitudes, abilities, and offices within the trade of a soldier. Remember officers are generalist.
What are the three forms of Civilian Control?
1. Civilian control by Governmental Institution
2. Civilian control by Social Class
3. Civilian control by constitutional Form
First, what is authority and how is military power limited by it?
Level - The military is subordinate to our civilian institutions.
Unity - We do have a JCS, but are organizations are largely divided.
Scope - The military is generally limited to military matters. No rep at USDA
Does the military have influence?
Affiliations: Pre-service affiliations, or officers that come from particular social classes or geographical sections. Inter-service affiliations come when officers are tied to the executive congress or business. Post-service affiliations come when officers leave the service and work in powerful segments of society.
Resources: The larger the proportion of the national product devoted to military purposes, in blood and treasure, the greater the influence of the officer corps and its leaders.
Hierarchical interpenetration: Military members assuming positions in nonmilitary power structures.
Prestige: Popular officers.
Laswell assumed that the cold war would lead to a garrison state. What is a garrison state and how does it relate to CMRs?
It means the militarization of a liberal society. We subordinate other purposes to prepare for war. It also means the centralization of power. The executive and the military gain power at the expense of the legislature and civilian politicians
Why did Military Power increase after WWII?
1. There was a cold war, development of thermonuclear capabilities, and shifting world powers. A need for a standing army meant an increase in military power
(1) The influx of military officers into governmental positions
(2) Close ties between military leaders and business leaders
(3) The widespread popularity and prestige of individual military figures.
What is Political - Military Fusion?
A reconsideration of the idea of the civil-military gap. Two forms:
1) Demand that military leaders incorporate political, economic, and social factors into their thinking. A rebuff to the idea of the military mind, and a move toward military statesmanship.
2) Demand that military leaders assume non-military responsibilities. More of subjective military control.
What is Social Representation from Janowitz scheme? Why important?
The officer corps comprised of a cross section of [middle class] American society, but also competitive examination. Avoids the military become a self-perpetuating clique, or representing a privileged group.
Why does SR contribute to democracy?
An officer Corps that mirrors the nation's credo prevents imperial ambitions.
The military is largely rural? Why, and is this important?
A simple kind of patriotism in rural areas. Does not mean that they are from humble social origins. In fact they come from more privileged strata.
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