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crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.


one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.

textile industry

Industries involved in the reproduction and manufacturing of clothing and cloth


multistory building divided into crowded apartments


the movement of people from rural areas to cities

labor union

an organization that seeks to increase the wages and improve the working conditions of its members

Progressive Movement

reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.


A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.


an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit


an economic system in which all means of production—land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses—are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.


total control of a type of industry by one person or one company


place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods

James Watt

developed the Steam Engine


a black mineral from the earth that can be burned for fuel


having to do with cities


relating to the country or farming


a deadly disease that spreads rapidly from person to person


the act of contaminating or polluting

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