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118 terms

Skeletal System Ch. 7-9

STUDY
PLAY
functions of bone
-support
-protection
-movement
-storage
-hematopoiesis
storage
-fat
-bone matrix: resevoir of minerals (calcium & phosphorus)
bone cells
-3 types: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
osteoblast
-bone forming cells
-secretes asteoid
asteoid
-organic matrix, made of hydroxyapatites
-gives bone strength
osteoclast
-bone destroying cells
osteocyte
-spider shaped, mature bone cells
-surrounded by matrix, embedded in lacunae
bone classification
-shape: long, flat, short, irregular
-proportion of compact & spongy bone they contain
parts of long bone
-diaphysis
-epiphysis
-articular cartilage
-periosteum
-medullary cavity
-endosteum
diaphysis
-shaft of lone bone, hollow
-contains yellow marrow in adults (found in medullary cavity)
epiphysis
-ends of long bone
-filled with red marrow
-separated from diaphysis by epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
articular cartilage
-glassy textured
-cushions ends of bone
-absorbs stress during joint movement
periosteum
-outer membrane of diaphysis
-dense, irregular CT
-essential for bone cell survival
medullary cavity
-hollow space in diaphysis
-filled with yellow marrow
endosteum
-membrane, lines medullary cavity
-contains osteoblasts & osteoclasts
osteon
-aka Haverisan Systems
-structural unit of compact bone
parts of osteon
-lamellae
-lacunae
-canaliculi
-Haversian Canals
-Volkmann's Canals
lamellae
-layers of calcified matrix
lacunae
-"Little Lakes"
-small spaces containing fluid (contains osteocytes)
canaliculi
-ultra small canals coming from lacunae, connects to Haversian Canals
Haversian Canals
-extend lengthwise through Haversian system
-contains blood vessels & nerves
Volkmann's Canals
-extend transversely to Haversian canals
-connects vascular & nerve supply to periosteum
spongy (cancellous) bone
-no osteons
-contains trabeculae: needle-like
-open cavities filled with red marrow
bone marrow
-connective tissue (myeloid tissue)
-in medullary cavities & spaces of spongy bone
-2 types: red marrow and yellow marrow
red marrow
-produces red blood cells
-in most bones of infants/children
-adults: in vertebrae, ribs, ends of humerus & femur, pelvis
yellow marrow
-saturated with fat, once was red marrow
osteogenesis
-bone development
fontanels
-soft spots in fetus and newborns
-incomplete ossifciation (cartilage into bone)
development of bone
-growth occurs in long bones (male: until 25)
-puberty changes bone structures (female: hips widen)
-bone growth and destruction controlled by PTH and Calcitonin
PTH
-Parathyroid hormon
-detects levels of Ca
-too low: stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix releasing Ca into blood
Calcitonin
-produced by thyroid
-stimulates osteoblasts to make bone
homeostasis of bone growth
-depends on balance between bone growth and bone destruction
fractures
-treated by reduction (realignment of broken ends
close reductions
-bone coaxed by into place by physician
open reductions
-requires surgery, wires, pins, plates
cast / traction
-placed to immobilize and allow healing to begin
osteoporosis
-rate of bone breakdown surpases rate of bone formation
-causes bones to weaken
-common in post-menopausal women
osteomalacia
-in adults: deficiency of vitamin D & calcium
rickets
-in children: deficiency of vitamin D & calcium
Paget's disease
-excessive & abnormal bone redmodeling in older adults
slipped disc
-protrusion of vertebral disc posteriorly
-pressed on spinal nerves
scoliosis
-lateral; thoracic
-abnormal curvature of spine
kyphosis
-dorsally; thoracic
-hunchback
lordis
-lumbar
-swayback
whiplash
-odontoid process of axis pushed into spinal cord or brainstem
sprains
-forcible stretching, wrenching, twisting, tearing of joint ligaments
cartilage injuries
-from excessive twisting or high pressure
dislocations
-displacement of articular surfaces
bursitis & tendonitis
-inflammation of burca & tendon sheaths
arthritis
-auto-immune
-joint inflammation/degeneration with stiffness, pain, swelling
-types: osteoarthritis, rheumoid arthritis, gouty arthritis
osteoarthritis
-deterioration of articular cartilage & spur formation
-common in aged people
-weight bearing joints most affected
rheumatoid arthritis
-most crippling, autoimmune disease
-severve inflammation of joints
gouty arthritis
-"The Gout"
-urate salt crystals in soft joint tissues
-severe pain & discomfort
human skeleton
-206 bones (20% of body mass)
-divided into axial & appendicular skeleton
axial skeleton
-skull, vertebral column, rib cage (80 bones total)
skull (22 bones)
-cranial, facial, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone
cranial (8 bones)
-parietals, temporals, frontals, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, immovable sutures
facial (14 bones)
-maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior conchae, mandible vomer & mandible (only movable facial bone)
paranasal sinuses
-frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary
hyoid bone
-tongue, muscles of pharynx & larynx
-larynx: only bone in body doesn't articulate with another bone
vertebral column
-7 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-4 coccyx
-sacrum, fibrocartilage discs, curvature
vertebral curvature
-balance, strength, support
-primary curves: thoracic and sacral
-secondary curves: cervical & lumbar
bony thorax
-rib cage
-12 pairs (males & females)
-true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
true ribs
-first 7 pairs
-joins coastal cartilage to sternum
false ribs
-last 5 pairs
-3 pairs joins cartilage to sternum
floating ribs
-last 2 pairs of false ribs
-not attachment
appendicular skeleton
-pectoral girdle
-pelvis girdle
pectoral girdle
-upper extremity
-clavicles (most frequently broken)
-scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
pelvis girdle
-lower extremity
-ossa coxae, ilium, ischium, pubis, & lower limbs
pubis
-male pelvis: larger, deep, & narrow, heavier
-female pelvis: shallow, wider, birth canal
lower limbs
-femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
joints
-where bones meet (articulations)
-classified by structure: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
fibrous
-immovable, no joint cavity
-ex: sutures of skull
cartilaginous
-slightly movable
-lacks joint cavity, bones united by cartilage
-ex: epiphyseal disc, coastal cartilage connect ribs to sternum
synovial
-freely movable
-articulating bones separated by a fluid containing joint cavity
-ex: hip, shoulder
synovial fluid
-secreted by synovial membrane
-viscous, egg-white consistency
-made of hyaluronic acid
types of synovial joints (6)
-plane: intercarpal & intertarsal
-hinge: elbow & knee
-pivot: proximal radioulnar joint, joint between atlas/axis
-condyloid:metacarpophalangeal & radiocarpal joints
-saddle: carpometacarpal joint of thumb
-ball & socket: shoulder & hip
movement of bones
-skeletal muscle contracts, insertion moves towards origin
insertion
-movable attachment of muscle to bone
-moves toward its origin
origin
-immovable attachment of muscle to bone
common types of movement (3)
-gliding
-rotating
-angular
rotating
-turning movement of bone around its axis
-ex: first 2 cervical vertebrae, hip, shoulder
angular
-increase/decrease angle between 2 bones
types of angular joints (5)
-flexion
-extension
-abduction
-adduction
-circumduction
flexion
-bending, decreases angle of joint
-ex: bending knee from straight to angled
extension
-increases angle between articulating bones
-ex: straightening knee
abduction
-moving away from midline
-ex: raising arm up
adduction
-move toward midline
-lowering raised arm
circumduction
-angular movemnts of flexion, abduction, adduction, & extension to describe cone in space
-ex: saddle joint of thumb
special movements (8)
-supination & pronation
-inversion & eversion
-protraction & retraction
-elevation & depression
supination
-movements of radius around ulna
-turn palm forward so radius/ulna are not crossed
pronation
-movements of radius around ulna
-palm moved to a posterior position
inversion
-special movement of foot
-sole turned medially
eversion
-special movement of foot
-sole faces laterally
protraction
-anterior (forward) movement
-jut mandible forward
retraction
-posterior movement
-returns protracted bone/body part to original position
elevation
-lifting/moving superiorly along frontal plane
-scapulae elevated when you shrug your shoulders
depression
-elevated part move downward to original position
-unshrug shoulder
bone markings reveals
-site of muscle attachment
-points of articulation (joint)
-sites of blood vessels & nerve passage
process/projections
-sites of muscle attachment
-tuberosity, crest, trochanter, line, tubercle, epicondyle
tuberosity
-roughened, large, rounded process
crest
-prominent ridge
trochanter
-very large, blunt, irregular shaped process
line
-narrow ridge
-less prominent than crest
tubercle
-small, rounded process
epicondyle
-raised area above condyle
projections that form articulations
-head
-facet
-condyle
-ramus
head
-bony extension from a narrow neck
facet
-smooth articular surface
condyle
rounded articular projection
ramus
-armlike bar, curved portion of bone
depressions and openings
-allow blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels to pass through
-meatus, sinus, fossa, groove, fissure, foramen
meatus
-canal-like passageway
sinus
-cavity within bone
-mucus membrane lined
-air-filled
fossa
-shallow, basin-like depression
groove
-furrow
fissure
-narrow slit-like opening for blood vessels & nerves
foramen
-round/oval hole for vessels & nerves