honors mwh final
Terms in this set (64)
john locke is associate with which famous concept?
natural rights—life, liberty, property; if a government abuses its power, the people have a duty to rebel
what sort of monarchs were catherine the great and frederick the great? why did they sponsor enlightenment thinkers?
enlightened despots; make country stronger, make rule more effective, solidify power
which two 18th century documents were revolutionary in calling for citizens to choose their government?
declaration of rights of man and citizen; declaration of independence
which movements weakened the authority of the catholic church?
scientific revolution, protestant reformation
why was the rule of king louis xvi undermined by the enlightenment?
enlightenment thinkers undermine the ideas of divine right & absolutism, methods by which leaders such as king louis xvi ruled
blending of intellectual schools of thought with the idea of improving the human condition
when and how have revolutions in history been followed by violent phases?
french revolution--reign of terror under robespierre and committee of public safety; russian revolution--stalin's purges; chinese communist revolution--mao zedong's cultural revolution
what is the major long-lasting accomplishment of napoleon? why?
civil code--still used in some of france
who and which event is most associated with the restoration of balance of powers in the post-napoleonic period? why was this important?
klemens von metternich @ congress of vienna; led to 38 years of peace in europe with gradual reforms and democratization
what are the four factors of production? what development in european history do we identify these with?
land, labor, capital, entrepreneurs; industrial revolution (especially in britain)
what is nationalism and how is it associated with historical developments?
common identity through religion, history, ideals, language, etc.; unifies nations and breaks them apart; drives independence movements and wars
which nation in continental europe los the most territory (due to nationalism)?
who best typified the inhumane side of european imperialism in his african colony?
king leopold ii of belgium in the congo
the first phase of the industrial revolution involved the greatest increase in which products in which country during which century?
textiles in britain in 19th century
the writers of which famous document emphasized a class struggle leading ultimately to what actions by the proletariat? how would these actions ultimately affect private property?
karl marx and friedrich engels; communist manifesto; dictatorship of the proletariat; abolition of private property
the slogan, "peace, land, and bread" is associated with which historical movement led by whom?
bolshevik revolution (russian communist revolution) led by vladmir lenin
how and why is latin america still strongly influenced by spain?
they are former colonies of spain and became dependent following independence due to a lack of preparation
by which decade did portugal and spain lose most of their colonies in the new world?
nationalism and competition for raw materials and markets for sales of finished goods were all reasons for which ism?
which continent was the last to be imperialized? where and when (at which conference) was it divided up by european powers?
africa; berlin conference of 1884-1885
who was notably absent from the berlin conference?
what is the basic idea of social darwinism? how is this idea reflected in a famous poem?
applying natural selection/survival of the fittest to race as a justification for imperialism; "white man's burden"
why was tribalism and a lack of unity a problem for africans in the 19th century?
made africa more vulnerable to imperialization; led to tribale warfare within countries; europeans had the upper hand with "guns, germs, and steel"
which point in the mediterranean was the most geopolitically significant to the british? why?
suez canal--lifeline to british eastern empire in asia
how did china and japan differ in their reaction to western imperialism in the 19th century?
china--middle kingdom psychology, disorganized, unwilling to modernize-->spheres of influence
japan--became an imperialist power and modernized
what were the underlying causes of WWI?
militarism, tangled alliances, imperialism, nationalism
how did the technology of warfare change in WWI?
new weapons (machine guns, tanks), U-boats, poison gas, large artillery, trench warfare --> lots of death
what were the negative effects of the treaty of versailles for germany? what was the long-term result of that treaty?
$33 billion in reparations led to hyperinflation; war guilt clause placed all blame for war on germany; led to rise of Hitler and WWII
why was the league of nations ineffective?
U.S., germany, and russia didn't join
the racist concept of racial superiority that led to the holocaust was a characteristic of which fascist dictatorship?
anti-semitism of hitler's nazi party
what are some common aspects of totalitarianism?
police terror, command economy, religious persecution, censorship, propaganda
how did the chinese communist revolution differ from the russian communist revolution that it followed?
chinese revolution was a peasant revolution; russian revolution was an urban proletariat revolution (closer to marxist ideas)
explain the idea of appeasement. which 20th century event is it most associated with?
giving into an aggressor to maintain peace; munich conference (neville chamberlain and the sudetenland)
which german-speaking regions did hitler set his sights on taking over?
which country did hitler invade to seek lebensraum for german-speaking people? why was this a mistake similar to napoleon's invasion of that country?
ussr (ukraine); napoleon and hitler both lost millions to the russian winter
define genocide. what is the most infamous example of a genocide in modern history?
methodical/deliberate killing of a specific group/s of people; the holocaust (meaning the immolation or burning)
el alamein was the turning point of the war in north africa in which country?
stalingrad was the turning point of WWII in europe in which country? why?
soviet union; halt to german advance
midway was the turning point of WWII with which country in which region? why?
japan in the pacific; 4 of the 5 japanese aircraft carriers were destroyed
what do we refer to as the period of heightened tensions between the two superpowers after WWII?
give some examples of cold war repression in eastern europe by the soviet union
berlin wall; crushing hungarian dissidents (tanks); crushed rebellion in czechoslovakia
which of gorbachev's policies hastened the breakup of the soviet union and fall of its communist government? why?
glasnost (openness)--less of a totalitarian state, showed corruption, allowed citizens to voice their criticisms and suggestions; perestroika (economic restructuring)--wasn't effective, halfway reform
which movement, started by theodore herzl, an austrian jew, encouraged return to the historical homeland? how were jews assisted in their return? why have conflicts continued to this day between jews and palestinians?
zionism; balfour declaration (jewish emigration to palestine); both have historical claims to the land
what was the first peacetime military alliance that the u.s. joined? why was the warsaw pact created led by which country and satellite states in which region?
nato; soviet union to combat nato/in response to western germany's entrance into nato
both the u.s. and soviet union had similar bitter experiences in unsuccessful cold war conflicts in which countries?
vietnam (u.s.), afghanistan (ussr)
which of mao's five year plans led to great hardships in china followed by which campaign that ultimately targeted mao's critics?
2nd five year plan (great leap forward) led to mass starvation
who succeeded mao zedong? what program did he initiate that led to the modernization of china?
deng xiaoping; four modernizations (gradualism)
why did emerging third world nations have so many problems after independence?
backwards economies, ethnic strife, strongman dictators
which social movement was inspired by mahatma gandhi's concept of satyagraha or truth force? which famous american was inspired by gandhi's example?
indian civil disobedience/independence movement (included things such as indian homespun cloth, salt march, boycotts, etc.); Martin Luther King, Jr.
gandhi wanted a united india, but religious conflicts led to the creation of which two countries at independence? what is the majority religion in each of these countries?
india--hindu; pakistan--islam (also later bangladesh)
prior to 1991 which was the largest communist country in the world in terms of geographic size? which is the largest communist country today?
soviet union; china
why was bismarck concerned about the geographic location of his country?
he was worried germany would have to fight a two-front war
what was the country famous for napoleon's disastrous invasion where the majority of his troops died?
which country was the birthplace of simon bolivar and is the major oil-producing country in latin america?
which is the largest country in latin america that was originally a colony of which european country? how did it differ from other colonies in the region?
brazil; portugal; although it was large, most of it was rainforest (amazon)
which african country had the bloodiest struggle for independence from a colonial power after world war II?
which country in africa was the site of an ancient civilization and the suez canal and the place where the allies stopped the axis advance in north africa?
which country in the middle east has the largest population of peoples of the minority shia sect and speak a non-arabic language?
which country in the middle east has a city holy to all three monotheistic religions?
which country was the center of the ancient mesopotamian civilization and was the site of a u.s. invasion in the late 20th century?
which country was the birthplace of muhammad and the largest oil-producing country in the world?
which country is called the middle kingdom and was the traditional center of asian civilization?
which country has the largest population in southeast asia and is also the largest archipelago in the world?
which country in south asia is the largest democracy in the world but has often been the site of religious conflicts between muslims and hindus?