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Chapter 4 World History
Terms in this set (39)
Marco Polo was an explorer who traveled from Venice to the Chinese court of Kublai Khan in the late thirteenth century. The book he wrote about his journey increased European interest in Asia.
Who was Marco Polo, and why was he important?
Europeans hoped to expand trade for spices, which yielded large profits; to find precious metals; and to convert any people they encountered to Christianity.
What did Europeans hope to accomplish on their voyages?
New, faster ships called caravels (invented by the Portuguese), advances in mapmaking (cartography), use of the astrolabe and the magnetic compass, and knowledge of wind patterns made long voyages possible.
Portuguese were the 1st to explore other lands because they had superior ships.
How were the explorers able to travel such great distances?
Bartholomeu Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope. Vasco da Gama sailed around the tip of Africa to reach India (was very profitable because he returned with valuable cargo of spices). Afonso de Albuquerque established a port at Goa and helped establish Portuguese control of the spice trade.
Who were two important explorers for Portugal, and what did they accomplish?
Columbus reached all the major Caribbean islands and Central America. Ma-gellan is remembered for being the first to sail completely around the globe.
Who were two important explorers for Spain, and what did they accomplish?
Spanish weapons (allowed fewer men to control large populations), the use of native peoples as allies, and European dis- eases helped Cortés and his soldiers defeat the Aztec.
What factors helped Cortés defeat the Aztec?
Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish explorer who established a new capital at Lima after the conquest of the Inca in Peru.
Who was Francisco Pizarro, and what did he do?
The Dutch (Netherlands), French and English settled the Americas and challenged financial control of Spanish and Portuguese.
The Dutch formed the company to search for new sources of wealth and trade opportunities. They wanted to challenge Portugal and Spain for colonial dominance and become less dependent on them.
Why did the Dutch form the West India Company?
The French settled in an area that is now part of Canada and in Louisiana. The English established successful colonies along the eastern seaboard of North America.
Where in North America did the French and the English settle?
conquest, competition, and trade led to sig- nificant economic and political growth—for example, Portugal took control of the spice trade, the Spanish conquered the Aztec and the Inca; the Dutch, French, and the English explored and settled in North America.
How did European exploration affect European nations politically and economically?
European colonial - helped produce a great increase in European trade, and this growth was a key step in the development of a world -.
mercantilism (theory that trade generates wealth)
According to the theory of -, which dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century, the - of a nation depends on a large supply of gold and silver (also called buillon).
When the balance of trade between what a nation - and what it exports is favorable, the goods exported are of - value than those imported.
Colonies were important as sources of raw materials and as - for exports of manufactured goods.
The exchange of - and animals between Europe and - significantly changed economic activity in both regions.
The import of horses by Europeans changed the lives of Native Americans living on the plains of N. America.
New food crops supported the growth of - and changed people's tastes.
Potatoes from America spurred population growth in Europe because they yielded more food per acre than other crops.
The - dominated the spice trade in the - century.
In the seventeenth century, the - and the - established trading posts and forts in India.
Plantations that were established in the Americas in the - to grow - needed many laborers.
As many as - million enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas between the early 1500s and the late 1800s.
Europeans first bought enslaved people from - merchants in return for gold and other goods.
Quakers (also known as Society of Friends)
Until the - condemned it in the 1770s, slavery remained largely acceptable in Europe.
The more European countries expanded in the Americas, the more they increased the slave trade in W. Africa.
One effect of slave trade was a decreased population in parts of Africa.
the movement of goods, people, and ideas that led to a world economy, such as the millions of enslaved Africans brought to the Americas; the import and export of plants and animals of the Columbian Ex- change; the spread of European diseases to native peoples; the theory of mercantilism that encouraged colonial expansion.
How did European expansion create the first global economic system?
Social classes in colonial Latin America were based on -.
-, Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe, were the highest social class and maintained power in colonial Latin America because they were born in parent countries that founded their colonies.
- were Europeans born in Latin America and their descendants. Several - groups were beneath the - and the peninsulares.
Many social groups, such as the - (people of mixed European and Native American Indian descent) and -, emerged as a result of the intermarriage between Europeans and Native Americans or Africans.
The Portuguese and Spanish increased their wealth by removing natural resources like - and - from Latin American land.
Through the - system, Spanish landowners forced Native Americans to pay taxes and provide -. It was a failure because Native Amerians were often abused instead of being protected by settlers.
In Peru, through a system known as the -, authorities could - native peoples to work in silver mines.
Portuguese and Spanish rulers exerted authority over their colonies through a bureaucratic system of government and the influence of the Catholic Church (they brought Native Americans together in villages where they were taught trade and encouraged to grow crops).
Portuguese and Spanish monarchies appointed governor-generals, or -, to help govern their colonies in Latin America.
Christianize or convert
Determined to - the native peoples, Catholic - throughout the Spanish Empire brought Native Americans together into missions. This contributed to the colonization of latin America.
With the establishment of convents, women had an outlet other than marriage; they could become -.
social characteristics of the Latin American colonies, such as the complex interactions between the various peoples in the colonies and the stratified class system; economic characteristics such as the removal of natural resources, the encomienda and mita systems, and trade with Europe; political characteristics such as government by viceroys and the powerful influence of the Catholic Church and the activities of its missionaries.
What were the social, economic, and political characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese rule in Latin America?
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