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22 terms

Ch. 8 Food and Nutrition

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nutrients
A substance in foods that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy
metabolism
Is the chemical process by which your body breaks down food to release this energy.
calories
units used to measure energy
carbohydrates
Are nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
fiber
part of grains and plant foods that cannot be digested
fats
Supply your body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves.
unsaturated fats
Fats that are usually liquid at room temperature.
saturated fats
Fats that are usually solid at room temperature.
cholesterol
a waxy substance produced and needed by the body, also found in animal fats and some plant foods
trans fats
Are made when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils. These are not good for you.
proteins
Most important role in the growth and repair of your body's tissues.
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
vitamins
compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients
antioxidants
Vitamins that help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by the normal aging process as well as certain types of cancer. Vitamins C & E.
minerals
Nutrients that occur naturally in rocks and soil.
anemia
a deficiency of red blood cells
homeostasis
internal stability or "steady state" maintained by the body
electrolyte
regulates many processes in your cells.
dehydration
a serious reduction in the body's water content
dietary guidelines for Americans
a set of recommendations for healthful eating and active living
nutrient-densed food
contains lots of vitamins and minerals relative to the number of calories.
MyPyramid plan
a plan that groups foods according to types and indicates how much of each type should be eaten daily for a healthy diet