Chemistry Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (74)
What is mater?
anything that mass and occupies space
What are the three classifications of matter, and properties?
Solid-(definite volume, definitie shape)
Liquid-(definite volume, indefinite shape)
Gas-(indefinite volume, indefinite shape)
The what are the two characteristics of matter?
physical and chemical characteristics
What are physical characteristics?
is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the basic identity of that substance ( ie: color, odor, state change, melting point, boiling point)
What are chemical properties of matter?
is characteristic of a substance that describes the way a substance undergoes or resists change to form a new substance
Classify each, change in color, odorless, reacts with water, combines with Hb, melting point of -219 C, does not react with gold and boiling point of -183 C
physical, physical, chemical, chemical, physical, chemical, physical
What are the two types of physical changes?
changes in state and changes in shape and size
What are some examples of chemical changes?
rusting iron, frying an egg
What are the two categories in which you classify matter?
What is a pure substance?
is a single kind of matter that cannot be separated into other forms of matter by any physical means?
What are the three characteristics of a pure substance?
1. only one substance present-pure water and only pure water
2. definite and constant composition-water always has 89% O and 11% H
3. Properties always are the same under the same conditions-all samples of pure water all have the same properties, tasteless, colorless etc..
What are the two sub-classes of a pure substance?
1. Elements: is a pure substance that CANNOT be broken down into a simpler pure substance by chemical or physical means.
2. Compounds: is a pure substance that CAN be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances by chemical means but NOT physical means.
What are mixtures?
is a physical combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains it's own chemical identity.
1. physical combination
2. composition can vary
3. properties can vary with composition
What are the two subclasses of mixtures?
heterogenous: is a mixture that contains visibly different parts each which has different properties (salt, sand, oil water)
Homogenous: is a mixture that contains only one visibly different phase which has uniform properties throughout (sugar, air, alloy)
What is an atom?
is the smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have properties of that element
What is a molecule?
is a group of two or more atoms that function as a unit because the atoms are tightly bound together
What is one way to classify a molecule based on the amount of atoms in the molecule?
monoatomic, diatomic, triatomic etc...
What is the unit of measurement for length, mass and volume?
meter, gram, liter
conversion for cc
Metric system prefixes;
What is Density?
ratio of the mass of an object to the volume occupied by that object D=M/V
When you have a small amount of density, then you have______amount of volume and a ____amount of mass, when you have a high density you have a _____amount of volume and a ______amount of mass.
large, small, small, large
What is heat energy?
heat is the common form of energy associated with chemical change
What is a calorie?
is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
What is specific heat?
is the quantity of heat energy in calories necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
The _______the specific heat the more heat that must be supplied to raise the temperature conversely the more heat must be ______ to lower the temperature.
What is a sub atomic particle and what are the three types?
is a very small particle that is a building block for atoms
1. protons (+)
3. electrons (-)
Where is an atom must dense?
What is the atomic number, and what is the mass number?
atomic number: tells the number of protons also tells the number of electrons
mass number: tells the number of protons and the number of neutrons
What does the number of protons determine
what element you have
What does the number of electrons determine?
the chemical properties of an element
What does the number of neutrons determine?
does not effect idenity (chemical and physical properties) it determines the number of nuclear reactions
What is an isotope?
are atoms of an element that have the same amount of electrons but different number of neutrons
What is atomic mass and what is the unit of atomic mass?
is the calculated average mass for the isotopes of an element expressed on a scale where 12C serves as the reference
What is periodic law?
states that when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar chemical properties occur at periodic intervals
What is the periodic table?
is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number such as elements having similar chemical properties are positioned in vertical columns
What is group IA?
What is group II A?
alkali earth metals
What is group IIV?
What is group IIIV?
What is a period?
is a horizontal row of elements in increasing atomic #
What is the stair step line?
separates metals from non metal
What is a metal?
is an element that has the characteristic properties of luster thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and mallubility
What is a non metal?
is an element characterized by absence of properties of luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and malleability
What is an electron shell?
is a region of space about a nucleus that contains electrons that have approximately the same energy and that spend most of their time approximately the same distance from the nucleus
What is the maximum an electron shell can hold?
(2N^2) N=the electron shell
What is an electron sub shell?
is a region of space with in an electron shell that contains elecetrons that have the same energy (energy level within an energy level)
What are the sub shells and how many sub shells does each shell have?
How many electrons can each sub shell hold?
What is an electron orbital?
is a region of space with in an electron sub shell where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found
How many orbitals are found in each subshell?
How many electrons per orbital?
What is electron configuration?
is a statement of how many electrons an atom has in each of the electron sub shells
What are noble gasses?
is an element located in the far right column of the P table and don't react unless forced
What is representative elements?
is an element located in the area of the first five columns of the P area of the periodic table
What are inner transition elements?
is an element located in the F area of the periodic table
What are transition elements?
is an element located in the D area of the Periodic table
how much heat energy must be provided to increase the temperature of 15g of water by 5.0C?
How much energy must be provided to increase the temperature of 15g of aluminum by 5.0C?
What is the specific heat of silver if removing 9.22 calories from 15g of lowers the temperature from 35.8 to 25.2C?
temperature swings between day and night in Chicago can be only to fifteen degrees F. Besides the sun, which always accounts for day and night differences what factors also contributes to the day and night differences being so small?
-water has a high specific heat so it takes a lot of energy to lower or raise the temperature
-Because chicago is by the great lakes it keeps the temperature more stable
Suppose one day you are in a hurry to cook supper. Will you use a copper pot of a stainless steel ( more than 90% iron) pot for the food?
we would use a copper pot because it has a lower specific heat. which means that the food will cook faster since the heat needed to raise the temperature of is less.
What is the density of an object that has a mass of 4g and a volume of 8cm^3?
What is the mass of an object that has a density of 0.1 g/cm^3 and a volume of 10cm^3?
mass = 1.g
What is the volume of a liquid that has a density of 0.5g/mL and a mass of 3g?
A dairy's sample of mild has a density of 1.03g/cc and a mass of 3.02g, what is the volume of milk?
classify each of the following as physical or chemical properties;
-solid at room temp
-ignites upon heating in air
-hydrogen gas is produced when it is dissolved in acids
-has a density of 1.738
physical, chemical, chemical, physical
classify each of the following as physical or chemical properties;
-silver salts discolor the skin by reacting with skin protein
-hemoglobin molecules have a red color
-beryllium metal vapor is extremely toxic to humans
-aspirin tablets can be pulverized with a hammer
chemical, physical, chemical, physical
classify each of the following as true or false
-a heterogenous mixture must contain three or more substances
-Pure substances cannot have a variable composition
-Substances maintain their identity in a heterogeneous mixture but not in a homogeneous mixture
-Pure substances are seldom encountered in everyday life
Assign each of the following descriptions of matter to the statement;
-two substances present, two phases present
-two substances present, one phase present
-one substance present, two phases present
-three substances present, three phases present
indicate whether the statement is true of false;
-both elements and compounds are pure substances
-A compound results from the physical combination of two or more elements
-In order for matter to be heterogeneous at least two compounds must be present
-Compounds but not elements can have a variable composition
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false
-The atom is the limit of chemical subdivision for both elements and compounds
-Triatomic molecules must contain at least two kinds of atoms
-a molecule of a compound must be heteroatomic
-only heteratomic molecules may contain three or more molecules
-False-homoatomic can contain three heteratomic must contain three different ones
What is the percent adundance and mass of each isotope
-lithium:7.42 (6.01 amu) and 92.58 Li-7(7.02)
-magnesium:78.99% Mg-24(23.99amu) 10.00% Mg-25 (24.99amu) and 11.01%
Mg-26 (25.98 amu)