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Constantine's most enduring reform came in the creation of:

the "new Rome"

The Edict of Milan

was Constantine's document officially tolerating the existence of Christianity

The Council of Cicaea in 325

defined Christ as being "of the same substance" as God

The heresy of Arianism

Questioned the divinity of Jesus

The withdrawal of Roman armies from Britain enabled

Angles and Saxons, Germanic tribes from Denmark and Germany, to invade and to establish new kingdoms on the isle

Augustine did all of the following except:

Translate Scripture into the Latin Vulgate

Saint Jerome is known for all the following except:

His final return to pagan heresy and rejection of key christian doctrines

the basic rule for western monastic living was developed by:


Justinian's most important contribution to western Civilization was his

codification of the law

Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medinaa in 622 is known as the


Which of the following would not be a similarity between Christianity and Islam?

Both Muhammad and Jesus considerd themselves to be divine

The Successors to Muhammad's leadership of the Muslims were known as


Muslim societies abide by a strict code of l, much of it derived from the holy book Koran and regulating all aspects of muslim life. the law code is called:


The Persecutions against European Jews in the High Middle Ages were

Frequently inspired by Christian crusades

By the 13th century, a previous acceptance of homosexuality by church and society had been replaced by Christian persecution of homosexuals due to all of the following except:

papal decrees which had harshly condemned the lifestyle since the early Middle Ages and had overtly tried to stamp it out for centuries

The Islamic World in the mid 11th century was largely unified and dominated by the


Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095

Promised remissions of sins for joining the crusades to recapture the Holy Land

After Capturing the city of Jerusalem in 1099, the Christian soldiers of the First Crusade

massacred many of the men, women and children in the captured city and created several Christian crusader states with feudal institutions

All of the following were aspects of the Fourth Crusade except

the restoration of the Byzantine Empire as a great Mediterranean power

What is not a result of the crusades?

the growth in power of the Middle Eastern crusader states

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