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chapter 14 &15: great depression and new deal

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Two term governor of New York and distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt
New Deal
Roosevelt's campaign promises/policies
Hundred Days
A period where Roosevelt lauched a bunch of policies
Fireside chats
Radio talks about issues of public concern
Emergency Banking Act
Authorized the treasury department to inspect the country's banks
Glass-Stegall Act
Est. The federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC)
Federal Securities Act
Required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations
Agriculture Adjustment Act
Sought to raise crop prices by lowering production, which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of every acre of land unseeded
Civilian conservation corps
Put young men aged 18-25 to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in soil-erosin and flood-control projects
National industrial recovery act
Provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools and other community buildings
Public works administration
Part of the NIRA; created joba for millions of unemployed people and hired out of work artists
Deficit spending
Spending more money than the government receives in revenue
Federal housing administration
Helped people pay their mortgages and house repairs with loans
Huey long
Senator of Louisiana; challenged new deal; share our wealth
Francis Townsend
Physician; devised pension plan for the elderly
Father Charles Coughlin
Radio broadcast sermons; Roman Catholic priest
Eleanor Roosevelt
Social reformer who combined her humanitarian and political skills to aid her husband
Supreme court packing
FDR wanted to reorganize the federal judiciary and appoint 6 new supreme court justices
Frances Perkins
First woman appointed cabinet member
Dorthea Lange
Photographer hired to take pictures to create a record of the difficult situation in rural America
Second new deal
The second new deal included new programs to extend federal aid and stimulate the nations economy
Works progress administration
Created millions of jobs for the unemployed
Harry Hopkins
Head of the works progress administration; former cheif of the federal emergency relief administration
National Youth Administration
Provide jobs for young people
Wagner Act
(National Labor Relations Act) gave labor unions the right to organize and represent workers in collective bargaining
Fair Labor Standards Act
Set max hours, maximum wage, and abolished child labor
Social security act
Created federal system of old age pensions, and assistance for orphans and the disabled. Also set up an unemployment insurance system (frances perkins)
Mary McLeod Bethune
An educator who dedicated herself to promoting opportunities for young African Americans; hired by the president to head the division of negro affairs of the national youth administration
John Collier
Commissioner of indian affairs
Indian reorganization act
Allowed tribes to govern themselves
New Deal Coalition
An alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the democratic party; as a result, democrats dominated national politics in the 1930s & 1940s
John L Lewis
Formed committee for industrial organizations to organize industrial unions
Congress of industrial organizations
The former committee for industrial organization
Gone with the wind
Famous film that provided an escape from the depression
Orson wells
Actor, director, producer, and writer who created one of the most reowned radio broadcasts, "the war of the worlds"
Grant wood
American painter- American gothic: painting
Richard Wright
African American author; novel: native son
The grapes of wrath
Reveals lives of Oklahomans who left the dust bowl
Federal deposit insurance corporation and the securities and exchange commission
Regulate banking and investment activities
National labor relations board
Created under the wagner act, continues to act as a mediator in labor disputes between unions and employers
Parity
A price intended to keep farmers income steady
Tennessee valley authority
Harnessed water power to generate electricity and to prevent floods in the Tennessee valley
Bank holiday
Roosevelt closed all banks
Harold ickes
U.S. Secretary of the interior; responsible for implementing much of Roosevelt's new deal
Farm board
Help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage
John Maynard Keynes
Keynesian economics; informed economic policies of governments
Marian Anderson
African American singer
Individualism
Favoring freedom of action for individuals over collection or state control
Codes of fair competition
To limit competition and foster a spirit of teamwork among industry rivals
Demagogues
A political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires or prejudices rather than using rational argument
Political right
Political positions or activities that accept or support social hierarchy or social inequality
Sit down strikes
Strikes where workers sit at their stations, so they cant be replaced with scabs
Political left
Accept or support social equality
20th Amendment
Moved president and vice president terms to march 4-jan 20 and members of congress from march 4-jan 3
Recession of 1937
Economic downturn during the Great Depression
Price supports
Government would buy surplus crops at guaranteed prices and sell them on the world market
Credit
Consumers agreed to buy now and pay later for purchases
Alfred E. Smith
Ran against Herbert Hoover
Dow Jones industrial average
Most widely used barometer of the stock market's health
Speculation
People bought stocks/bonds to get a profit and ignoring the risks
Buying on margin
Paying a small percentage of a stock price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
Black Tuesday
The bottom fell out of the market (oct. 29)
Great Depression
1920-1940 when the economy fell and unemployment rose
Hawley-Smoot tariff act
Established the highest protective tariff in the U.S.
Shanty towns
Little towns consisting of shacks
Soup Kitchens
Offering free or low cost food
Bread lines
Lines of people waiting to get food from charitable organizations
Dust Bowl
Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado-the region that was hit the hardest
Direct Belief
Cash payments or fod provided by the government to the poor
Boulder Dam
Provided electricity, flood control, and fresh water to C.A.
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
Lowered mortgages for homeowners, allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Authorized up to $2 billion for emergency financing for all banks, life insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses
Bonus Army
WW1 verterens and their families
Consumer spending
Consumer demand or consumption
Income Distribution
How a nations total GDP is distributed amongst its population
Herbert Hoover
31st president of the United states
Bank failures
Occurs when unable to meet its obligations to its depositors
Hoovervilles
popular name for shanty towns
Hoover flags
Pockets that have been turned inside out to signify the lack of money
Hoover Blankets
Newspapers that people used as blankets
Okies
Native of Oklahoma
John Steinback
writer; won nobel prize for literature; grapes of wrath
Grapes of wrath
By john Steinback, set in the great depression
"Depression mentality"
Self imposed deprivation; negative outlook
A phillip randolph
Brotherhood of the sleeping porter cars