Patho midterm exam

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C, EWhich of the following relate to a change in cell size select all that apply A. Metaplasia B. Hyperplasia C. Atrophy D. Dysplasia E. HypertrophyCAn echocardiogram reveals Charles, an ultramarathon runner, has an enlarged left ventricle. As this increase in ventricle size is supported by increased blood flow and ATP production due to the training Charles has undertake this increase in heart size demonstrates A. Physiological hyperplasia B. Pathological hypertrophy C. Physiological hypertrophy D. Benign neoplasia E. Pathological metaplasiaBA friend comes to you concerned, as her recent Pap tests revealed the presence of cervical dysplasia. Which of the following responses to your friend's comment is correct? A. Dysplasia is basically the same as cancer B. Dysplasia indicates a change in the cellular appearance C. Dysplasia indicates cancer cells have metastasized D. Dysplasia indicates a benign form of cancerous growth E. Dysplasia indicates one cell type has been replaced by another cell typeC, D, ECell injury occurs when cells are exposed to a severe stress that no longer allows them to maintain homeostasis. What basic changes occur as a result of cell injury? Select all that apply A. Inadequate oxygen diffusion at the alveoli B. Increase in mitochondria number C. Cellular swelling D. Defects in protein synthesis E. Dysfunction of the sodium-potassium pumpB, D, EWhich of the following are examples of necrosis. Select all that apply A. Cellular turnover at the surface of the skin B. Third-degree burn C. Changes in ovarian cells during menopause D. Myocardial cell damage caused by myocardial infarction E. Cell death caused by exposure to snake venomCWhere does transcription take place? A. Cytoplasm B. Endoplasmic reticulum C. Nucleus D. LysosomesAWhere does translation take place? A. Cytoplasm B. Endoplasmic reticulum C. Nucleus D. LysosomesDWhich statement is true about x-linked recessive A. The trait is seen more in females B. The father always gives the trait to the son C. Females cannot carry the trait D. The gene is passed from affected father to all daughtersAWhich is a complication of edema A. Wounds heal slowly B. Weight loss C. Temperature increases D. Decreased blood pressureCWhat happens when you give a person who is dehydrated a hypertonic solution A. Decreased capillary oncotic pressure B. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure C. Intracellular dehydration D. Extracellular dehydrationCWhat type of solution would you use to treat someone who is dehydrated with? A. Hypertonic B. Hypotonic C. IsotonicTT/F: I can have hypoxemia but not be anemicTT/F: I can be anemic and not be hypoxicTT/F: I can have hypoxia without being anemicFT/F: You can never have hypoxemia, anemia, and hypoxiaDWhich is an example of an acute inflammation? A. Syphilis B. TB (tuberculosis) C. Rheumatoid arthritis D. InfectionDWho is the first WBC responder to an site of injury? A. Lymphocytes B. Monocytes C. Basophils D. NeutrophilsDWhich of the following statements is not true about B and T lymphocytes A. Lymphocytes are part of the adaptive immunity B. They endow the body with long-term immunity C. Lymphocytes make up 20% to 35% of circulating WBCs D. They are the first line of defenseAWhich of the following is not a WBC A. Platelets B. Monocytes C. T-cells D. GranulocytesBHematologic cancers like leukemia cause: A. Leukopenia B. Leukocytosis C. Lymphoma D. HemoptysisDWhich cells make antibodies? A. Cytotoxic cells B. Monocytes C. T-cells D. B-cellsBWhat occurs during multiple myeloma? A. Increase in osteoblast activity B. Increase in osteoclast activity C. Hypocalcemia D. Decrease GI absorptionAAllergies are which type of hypersensitivity? A. Type I B. Type II C. Type III D. Type IVCWhat laboratory test determines what medication will destroy an organism A. Urinalysis B. Complete blood count C. Culture and sensitivity D. Antibody titerDAn overreaction of the immune systems is also called A. Lymphoma B. Leukemia C. Leukopenia D. Hypersensitivity reactionDWhich test is the earliest indicator for HIV? A. ELISA B. CD4 count C. CD8 count D. RNA assayDHow is cholesterol obtained? Select all that apply A. Liver and gall bladder synthesis B. Liver synthesis only C. Diet and gall bladder synthesis D. Diet and liver synthesisAWhich of the following accurately identifies risk factors for Cardiovascular disease A. Male gender, + family hx of CV disease, obese, hx of tobacco use B. +Family hx of CV disease, hx of autoimmune disease, female gender C. Female gender, hx of tobacco use, low stress D. Male gender, hx of tobacco use, lack of exercise, and hx of traumatic brain injuryAWhen blood flows from a larger area of vessel diameter to a smaller area of diameter, blood pressure: A. Increases B. Decreases C. Does not changeBStimulation of the SNS does what to heart rate? A. Decreases it B. Increases it C. Does not changeCWhich of the following is NOT considered a secondary cause of HTN? A. Coarctation of the aorta B. Brain tumor C. Pneumonia D. Chronic kidney diseaseCWhich client meets the definition of orthostatic hypotension? A. Client 1: BP laying: 130/90, standing 121/90 B. Client 2: BP laying: 118/80, standing 120/80 C. Client 3: BP laying: 140/90, standing 130/80 D. Client 4: BP laying: 112/76, standing 112/70BWhich of the following regarding aortic dissection is true? A. Females are more affected than males B. Males are more affected than females C. Both sexes are affected equally by the conditionAWhat is the most common symptom of PAD? A. Intermittent claudication B. Chest pain C. Difficulty breathing D. Cyanotic extremitiesCWhich of the following statements is true regarding circulation? A. The pulmonary system is high pressure and the systemic system is low pressure B. Both systems are low pressure C. The pulmonary system is low pressure and the systemic system is high pressure D. Both systems are high pressureBWhich statement best differentiates cardiac afterload from cardiac preload? A. Cardiac afterload is the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole B. Cardiac afterload is the amount of resistance that the ventricle must overcome C. Cardiac afterload is the factor that affects cardiac output D. Cardiac afterload is the amount of blood that enters the right atriumDWhich symptom is present in right sided heart failure? A. Blood in the lungs B. Respiratory problems C. Cyanosis D. Edema in ankles and feetAWhich symptom is present in left sided heart failure? A. Cyanosis B. Ascites C. Leg edema D. Swelling in handsAHow is systolic dysfunction different from diastolic dysfunction? A. In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has difficulty ejecting blood out of the chamber. B. In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has difficulty relaxing and is unable to expand fully. C. In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle pumps out insufficient blood volume. D. In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has low blood volume.AWhich lobe would a patient most commonly aspirate into due to its anatomical position? A. RML B. RLL C. LLL D. LULDEach hemoglobin molecule can carry ____ oxygen molecules A. 8 B. 2 C. 5 D. 4AWhen PO2 falls below ___ mm Hg, hemoglobin drops all O2 molecules off quickly A. 60 B. 70 C. 80 D. 90BVentilation-perfusion mismatching occurs when air cannot flow into an alveolus or blood flow around an alveolus is altered One of the most common etiologies for this is: A. Pneumonia B. Blood clot (PE) C. Atelectasis D. Pulmonary hypertensionDThe most common bacteria to cause community acquired pneumonia is: A. Haemophilus influenzae B. Mycoplasma C. Staphylococcusa aureus D. Steptococcus pneumoniaeCHospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) is a common cause of mortality for hospital patients. What is the most common microbe in this type of pneumonia? A. Haemophilus Influenzae B. Mycoplasma C. Staphylococcus aureus D. KlebsiellaCRight ventricular failure caused by pulmonary disease is also known as: A. Aortic stenosis B. Cyanosis C. Cor pulmonale D. Right ventricular hypertrophyBA spirometer measures the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs. The maximal amount of air exhaled is called: A. FEV1 B. FVC C. Tidal volume D. FEV1/FVC ratio