Focuses on how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact w/ each other, and how we make sense of others and ourselves locally, regionally, and globally
two main subfields of Geography
what are the subfields of human geography?
behavioral political economic cultural social urban medical population
spatial perspective defined
Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
an attempt to use multiple Geographic phenomenas to explain changes over space (the subfields-economics, politics, culture, etc).
What are the 5 themes of geography?
Location Place Regions Movement Human Environment Interaction
which organization introduced the 5 themes of geography in 1986? why?
national geographic society & to better categorize it
all of geography uses the __________________ to explain patterns, changes, and trends across ___________.
spatial perspective space
location consists of both ____________ and _____________ location
Exact location on the longitude and latitude grid system.
Location compared to other locations. This is a perceptual measure of proximity (its near...)
Analyzing why economic activities (job types) are in certain locations (example: maquiladoras in MX)
Alfred Weber's Least Cost Theory
Corporations will ALWAYS place industry in places that cost the least in order to maximize profit (cheap transport/ cheap labor)
"Character" of a place is...?
physical characteristics and human characteristics
The second theme, place, consists of both ____________ and ___________ characteristics.
Human characteristics of a place
Who lives there/visits there. What is the language, customs, and beliefs? Govt. and economic system relate to human characteristics
Sense of Place
We infuse a place w/ meaning and emotion by attaching/connecting a place w/ important events. This creates a sense of home for ppl from a place
Perception of Place
What ppl know about a place shapes their perception of it. Consider that ppl from west of the US often cite their least favorite places in US as the South, Appalachia or Utah
Areas linked together by measurable, shared traits that distinguish it from surrounding areas (common language, religion, natural boundaries).
The third theme is region. The three categories of regions are ____________, _____________, and _____________.
formal, functional, and perceptual
Organized space surrounding a central location, node, or focal point. Areas linked together by necessity or convenience. (Metropolitan areas/Trade Areas)
Movement shows us...?
the interconnectedness of places spatial interactions
Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions
Regions established by people's feelings/attitudes about a place (perception of place). Influenced by travel, media, film, etc. Examples=American Midwest, Middle East
Movement (4th theme)
movement is an analysis of the movement or exchange of people, goods, and ideas.
Movement allows geographers to...?
assess interaction between places dependent on how much or how little is exchanged
movement depends on which 3 things?
distances accessibility connectivity
ease of reaching one place to another
how similar places are
Human Environment Interaction
How ppl use the environment, how they have changed it, what the consequences are of those changes (drilling, deforestation, mining, carbon emissions, etc)
The total overall appearance of an area. Material character of a place; combination of natural physical features and human structures that give a place a unique form
Cultural landscapes that show different successful cultures/societies in the same place over time. (Aztecs—>Spanish Conquistadors—->Modern Mexicans in MX City—Plaza De Las Tres Culturas)
tangible imprint of successful human activity on a landscape in the form of buildings or infrastructure.
Seen in buildings (style, era, culture), roads (technology, development), places of worship (religion), homes, etc.
what are perspectives in geography?
theories on how best to explain changes, patterns, and trends across space.
The 3 main perspectives in geography
environmental determinism possibilism cultural ecology
environmental determinism; says environment is in control
environment (climate & access to resources) sets limitations on development trajectories of societies
ex) civilizations begin, grow and become strong around fertile land places industrialized first if they had access to fuel resources
the ongoing process of interconnection between places, economies, and people as a result of increasingly sophisticated/advanced technology
Possibilism (alternative to determinism); says that people are in control
a Cultural Theoretical Perspective that says the environment may set limits on development of societies or on choices but cultures are determined by social contexts or conditions. In other words, people ultimately can change the environment. This perspective puts people in control as opposed to the environment!
Cultural Ecology is a study of how humans adapt in order to survive (Example: Inuit People in Canada's Northern Territories eating fat and meat of Polar animals to protect themselves from the cold)
What caused/contributed to globalization?
technology, improved transport and communication, reduction of trade barriers, and improved mobility of labor and capital have helped contribute to it
What are the benefits of Globalization?
increase of free trade, economic competition, chances for development in poor countries
Negative impacts of globalization
people fear that it will only make the rich richer, jobs lost to lower cost countries, workers face pay cuts, leads to the exploitation of labor
How has (or will) globalization affect security nationally/internationally?
globalization has decreased the chance of large wars occurring and provides economic security through the growth of free trade
internal maps created out of familiarity with places we know best
the places where we perform our daily activities or travel to routinely.
opposite of activity spaces; areas on maps that aren't well defined b/c they are off limits or unknown to the map maker
the art and science of making maps
two main categories of map types
reference maps thematic maps
include physical, topographical, and political maps; show locations of places and geographic features
thematic maps (special purpose maps)
show us specific information or show us a trend or pattern; tell stories of geographic phenomenons (movement of people, population density, exports, land use, etc.)
scale in geography is used to describe both scale of ______________________ (local, national, regional, global) and _____________
real world phenomena map scale
small scale maps
show larger areas like regions or world maps; more generalized
large scale maps
show smaller, focused areas; more specific
map scale is a mathematic ratio of ______________ to _______________
map distance ground distance
any system used to transfer locations on Earth's surface to a flat surface
4 types of projection
conic plane cylindrical interrupted
characterized by its rectangular shape and straight lines. Orginally used for navigation and is distorted in shape and size closer to the poles
similar appearance to mercator map, but the land masses (especially africa) appear stretched. shapes of landmasses distorted on map, but relative size is more accurate
Gall Peters Projection
- distorts the land by stretching it near the equator making it longer - more accurate land size, but incorrect shape - purpose: navigation of world maps
- distortion around edges, countries appear more stretched - plane projection (top down view) - centralized point --> stretches as you move outwards
- focal point at north pole, distorted the orientation of the continents - flattened globe, interrupted - more accurate
Good Homolosine Projection
- designed to minimize distortion and to be accurate - peel-like shapes (orange peel map) - maintain accuracy
Graphic Information System (GIS)
computer program that is ultimately an interactive map that allows one to layer spatial data depending on what the usage is for
how does GIS work?
enables us to better plan and manage the information all around us- taking information like maps and making it digital to allow for change and analysis
how is GIS used?
used to analyze natural disasters, track diseases, plan cities, plan transportation movements, predict voting behavior, and aid in military intelligence
GPS (global positioning system)
- composition of 31 satellites - helped w/ evolution of maps - essential for location & directions - increased reliability and dependence
data about Earth's surface collected from satellites and aircraft; shows us geographic information and allows us to track changes in land use
Things people make (food, clothes, architecture, arts, crafts, technology)
Non-tangible elements of a societies' way of life: religion, language, spiritual beliefs, patterns of behavior, government systems, legal systems, education systems, and ideas towards gender roles and social roles.
Places where important ideas or cultural traits begin and spread (diffuse) from. (China for Asia, The Mayas of the Yucatan Peninsula for Central America, The Arabian Peninsula for the Islamic West Asia/Middle East)
Elements of culture that are the same but began independently from each other without the process of diffusion.
A single element of normal practice in a culture. (For example, men in certain cultures wear turbans. Another example, people in Spain eat dinner between 9-11pm)
Transfer of ideas/cultural elements from one place to another.
innovation develops in hearth, remains strong there but simultaneously spreads outward (example=Islam on Arabian Peninsula/Football in England)
Idea/innovation spreads 1st among most connected places or people (culture can spread down from an opinion leader)
Next step of diffusion. Idea spreads with people-people contact
Cultural adaptation is created when a cultural trait is introduced from somewhere else. It is then given a new/unique form. (Foods are good examples)
cultural elements move with migration. seen especially when groups migrate in large numbers and form ethnic neighborhoods in different countries.
Cultural Barrier-some element in one culture that does not allow for diffusion of another cultural element. (Shari'a Law not conducive for American hip hop music/McDonalds cant sell beef burgers in India because Hindus believe.....)
in summary, human geography is about...?
the spatial organization of people, about the character of places and regions created by people, and about human-environment interactions