Only $35.99/year

Terms in this set (94)

Alexander Hamilton came up with the Fiscal Program in 1790 that had a plan to address Revolutionary War debt, had a proposal to charter a national bank, and had a recommendation for government to promote industry . Although it was controversial, it restored the financial health of the United States. Hamilton was later the leader of the Federalist party and supporters of him supported what was called Federalism. They supported the Constitution and its ratification. Jeffersonian Republicans saw them as monarchs at heart. The new administration after Washington's presidency was born divided with Federalist John Adams as president and Republican Jefferson as vice president. Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Jeffersonian Republicans (Anti-Federalists) who opposed the Constitution, fearing the central government gaining too much power and becoming a monarchy. They claimed to be the biggest supporters of independence and had a lot of conflict with Hamilton and the Federalists. He was elected vice president under John Adams, the successor of Washington, and became president after Adams, and served from 1801-1809. Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. Federalists were supporters of the Constitution who favored its ratification. Anti-Federalists were opposers of the new Constitution and its ratification. Their main difference is that Federalists supported a strong national government, while anti-Federalists believed power should remain with the States. Anti-Federalists felt that their way promoted independence more than the Federalists and that the Federalists' ways could quite possibly later turn into a form of monarchy.
The 1860 Election was the election that republican Abraham Lincoln was elected president over democrat Stephen Douglas. It was important because it made the south feel isolated and started the secession and creation of the Confederates. Abraham Lincoln: In the general election, Lincoln again faced Douglas, who represented the northern Democrats; southern Democrats had nominated John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, while John Bell ran for the brand new Constitutional Union Party. With Breckinridge and Bell splitting the vote in the South, Lincoln won most of the North and carried the Electoral College to win the White House. During the Civil war, Lincoln drew criticism for suspending some civil liberties, including the right of habeas corpus, but he considered such measures necessary to win the war.Shortly after the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which took effect on January 1, 1863, and freed all of the slaves in the rebellious states but left those in the border states (loyal to the Union) in bondage. Though Lincoln once maintained that his "paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery," he nonetheless came to regard emancipation as one of his greatest achievements, and would argue for the passage of a constitutional amendment outlawing slavery (eventually passed as the 13th Amendment after his death in 1865).In November 1863, Lincoln delivered a brief speech (just 272 words) at the dedication ceremony for the new national cemetery at Gettysburg. Published widely, the Gettysburg Address eloquently expressed the war's purpose, harking back to the Founding Fathers, the Declaration of Independence and the pursuit of human equality. It became the most famous speech of Lincoln's presidency, and one of the most widely quoted speeches in history.
Began in 1864. The Sand Creek Massacre was the near annihilation in 1864 of Black Kettle's Cheyenne band by Colorado troops under Colonel John Chivington's orders to "kill and scalp all, big and little". After this massacre, several tribes were still retaliating, burning civilian outposts and sometimes killing whole families. The Sioux played the most dramatic role in the Indian Wars. In the Great Sioux War of 1865-67, the Oglala Sioux warrior Red Cloud fought the US army to a stalemate and forced the government to abandon its forts, which the Sioux burned to the ground. The Treaty of Fort Laramie temporarily restored peace to the region, but the wars continued with "Custer's Last Stand", where the US was defeated when deciding to go to a site in Montana and was wiped out by one of the largest Indian contingents ever assembled, an estimated 2,000-4,000 soldiers. This gave Indian-haters justification of their hate and fight against the Indian tribes. Sioux leadership in the Indian Wars ended in 1877 when the US Army tracked down the Indian contingents one by one and forced them to surrender. One of the last tribes to stand was the Apache tribe. Them, joined by the Kiowas and the Comanches, were the Indian side of one of the bloodiest conflicts of the era, the Red River War. The US army ultimately prevailed, although less by military might and more by cutting of the tribes' access to food. Small-scale warfare sputtered on until September 1886, when Geronimo, his band reduced to only thirty people, finally surrendered, thereby ending the Indian Wars. Chief Joseph- Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, popularly known as Chief Joseph or Young Joseph, was a leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe of the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States, in the latter half of the 19th century. He succeeded his father Tuekakas in the early 1870s.In order to save his people he began a retreat. He hoped to make it to Canada where he would meet up with the Sioux tribe of Sitting Bull. The retreat of Chief Joseph is called the Nez Perce War. It is often considered one of the most masterful retreats in military history
Two great leaders of the black community in the late 19th and 20th century were W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. However, they sharply disagreed on strategies for black social and economic progress. Their opposing philosophies can be found in much of today's discussions over how to end class and racial injustice, what is the role of black leadership, and what do the 'haves' owe the 'have-nots' in the black community. Booker T. Washington, educator, reformer and the most influential black leader of his time (1856-1915) preached a philosophy of self-help, racial solidarity and accomodation. He urged blacks to accept discrimination for the time being and concentrate on elevating themselves through hard work and material prosperity. He believed in education in the crafts, industrial and farming skills and the cultivation of the virtues of patience, enterprise and thrift. This, he said, would win the respect of whites and lead to African Americans being fully accepted as citizens and integrated into all strata of society. W.E.B. Du Bois, a towering black intellectual, scholar and political thinker (1868-1963) said no-Washington's strategy would serve only to perpetuate white oppression. Du Bois advocated political action and a civil rights agenda (he helped found the NAACP). In addition, he argued that social change could be accomplished by developing the small group of college-educated blacks he called "the Talented Tenth: "The Negro Race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men. The problem of education then, among Negroes, must first of all deal with the "Talented Tenth." It is the problem of developing the best of this race that they may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the worst." At the time, the Washington/Du Bois dispute polarized African American leaders into two wings-the 'conservative' supporters of Washington and his 'radical' critics. The Du Bois philosophy of agitation and protest for civil rights flowed directly into the Civil Rights movement which began to develop in the 1950's and exploded in the 1960's. Booker T. today is associated, perhaps unfairly, with the self-help/colorblind/Republican/Clarence Thomas/Thomas Sowell wing of the black community and its leaders. The Nation of Islam and Maulana Karenga's Afrocentrism derive too from this strand out of Booker T.'s philosophy. However, the latter advocated withdrawal from the mainstream in the name of economic advancement.