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Terms in this set (28)
Alice Hamilton (1869-1970)
In 1910, was appointed to the first occupational disease investigation body in the United States. Became a leading expert in occupational health and a pioneer in the field of toxicology. In 1919, became the first woman appointed to the faculty at the Harvard Medical School. From 1924 to 1930, served as the only female member of the League of Nations Health Committee
Armory Show of 1913
was a controversial exhibition of modern art, displaying works of the French Postimpressionists and of some American Moderns. The work of these and other artists marked the beginning in America of an artistic movement known as Modernism, a movement that had counterparts in many other areas of cultural and intellectual life as well.
a group of United States painters founded in 1907 and noted for their realistic depictions of sordid aspects of city life
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Powerful people/politicians who controlled cities. They controlled jobs and demanded payoffs from businesses. They were popular with the poor because they provided jobs, loaned $, gave extra coal in winter, gave turkeys at Thanksgiving, and held dances. In return, immigrants would vote for them or the politician the person supported.
City Beautiful Movement
A turn-of-the-century movement among progressive architects and city planners, who aimed to promote order, harmony, and virtue while beautifying the nation's new urban spaces with grand boulevards, welcoming parks, and monumental public buildings.
The doctrine that natural selection has been the prime cause of evolution of higher forms.
a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise; helped transform buying habits and turn shopping into an alluring and glamorous leisure activity. Marshall Field in Chicago created one of the first American department store soon followed by Macy's in New York City.
carried the motion picture into the new era with his silent epics (The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, etc.) which introduced serious plots and elaborate productions to filmmaking. Motion pictures were the first truly mass entertainment medium.
A twentieth-century American artist whose stark, precisely realistic paintings often convey a mood of solitude and isolation within common-place urban settings. Among his best-known forks are Early Sunday Morning and Nighthawks.
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
a southern writer who explored the oppressive features of traditional marriage, encountered widespread public abuse after publication of her shocking novel "The Awakening" in 1899. It described a young wife and mother who abandoned her family in search of personal fulfillment.
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
most important form mass entertainment (until radio and television); technology created by Thomas Edison in the 1880's; first introduced with "peep shows" in pool halls, arcades, and amusement parks; larger projectors allowed viewing by mass audiences in theaters; early iterations were plotless, and were designed to showcase the technology; were shown in lavish "palaces"; early audiences were primarily white.
National Consumers League (NCL)
group organized in 1899 to investigate the conditions under which goods were made and sold and to promote safe working conditions and a minimum wage
Newspapers in different cities across the country owned by a single company. The most important was William Randolph Hearst's, which by 1914 controlled 9 newspapers and 2 magazines. Hearst and rival publisher Joseph Pulitzer helped popularize what became known as "Yellow Journalism"-a deliberately sensational, lurid style of reporting, presented in bold graphics designed for a mass audience.
the realistic depiction in art of contemporary life, as a means of social or political comment.
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. He had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things he had seen.
Was involved in the field of functionalism. Contributed to history by studying how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studied Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
William Marcy Tweed (Boss Tweed)
The most famously corrupt city boss, boss of NYC's Tammany Hall in 1860s and 1870s, whose excesses finally landed him in jail in 1872.
Created distinctive women's community, created generation of female leaders; Mount Holyoke, Bryn Mar, Vassar, Radcliffe, Smith, Wellesley, etc.
type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers
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