Botany

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Terms in this set (...)

Bacteria 3 forms of genetic recombination
conjugation, transformation, transduction
conjugation
bacteria; DNA swap before dividing
Transformation
picks up random DNA
Transduction
uses viruses to carry DNA from one to the other
Uses of bacteria
decomposers, biological control, bioremidiation, producing food
Cyanobacteria
Bacteria that can carry out photosynthesis
Algae
photosynthetic thing living in water
Anabaena
cyanobacteria, #1 source of 02 on earth
Archea
Domain of unicellular prokaryote; extremeophiles
Viruses
Pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat; nonliving
Viroids
genetic material w/o protein coat
prions
infectious proteins
Protists
kitchen drawer eukaryotes
Hatora
modern day example of endosymbiosis; protista in haptophyta phylum
Colonialism
all same cells living together
Multicellular
Consisting of many cells
Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)
spirogyra, desminds, acetabularia, volvox, and ulva: all protista
Spirogyra
spiral chloroplasts, asexual and sexual reproduction, green algae (phylum Chlorophyta): protista
Acetabularia (mermaids wineglass)
largest single celled organism (phylum Chlorophyta): protista
Volvox
colonial green algae (phylum Chlorophyta): protista
Ulva (sea lettuce)
(phylum Chlorophyta): protista plant looking, multi cellular (hold fast, stipe, blades)
chrysophyta phylum
Diatoms and golden algae, indicator of crude oil :protista
brown algae phylum
Protista: multicellular; sargasm, fucus (hold fast, stipe, bladder, blades)
Rhodophyta phylum
red algae :protista
euglenopgyta phylum
protista: initiated the creation of protista kingdom, bioremidiator
Dinophyta phylum
protista: dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates
dinophyta phylum protista: red tide, bioluminescent, produce neurotoxins
Haptophyta phylum
protista: hatora
Charophytes phylum
the most plant like protist
Myxomycota Phylum (slime molds)
fungus like protists, sexual and asexual reproduction, decomposers
Oomycota Phylum (water molds)
protists: most important water decomposers, potato blight
Fungi
made up of hyphae, cell walls made of chitin, external digestors
Mycelium
cluster of hyphae
Chytridiomycota phylum
fungi: most primitive reproduction method, responsible for amphibian die off
How are fungi classified?
by how they reproduce sexually
Zygomycota (phylum)
fungi: asexually when life is good and sexually with zygote when life is rough
Rhizopus
bread mold; zygomycota phylum
Ascomycota (phylum)
cup shaped fungi: asexually reproduce with cup shaped structure. sexually reproduce with conidia strands
Ergot
Ascomycota phylum; LSD fat soluble
Dutch Elm Disease
Ascomycota phylum
Chestnut Blight
Ascomycota phylum
Basidiomycota Phylum
common/ familiar mushrooms. asexual reproduction produces 2 spores at a time. reproduces sexually as well
fairy rings
Basidiomycota phylum
shelf fungi/ turkey tail
Basidiomycota phylum
Bird's nest fungi
Basidiomycota phylum, "lil cups"
rust fungi
Basidiomycota phylum
Smut fungi
Basidiomycota
Deutromycota (imperfect fungi) phylum
no observed sexual reproduction, conidia of aspergillus for asexual reproduction
Penicillium fungi
Deuteromycota; used to make penicillin
Aspergillus fungi
Duetromycota; citric acid, soy sauce, black mold, can be carcinogenic
Lichens
fungi and algae (algae on top/ fungi on bottom) mutualist
Crustose
lichens that look painted on
Foliose
leaf-like lichen
fruticose
not either crustose or foliose lichens
a mass of cytoplasm that can ooze around obstacles
slime mold
a pathogen is a agent that is
harmful to living organisms
Nearly all single-celled eukaryotes that are either heterotrophic or photosynthetic belong to the kingdom
protista
the failure of the potato crop and the subsequent irish famine was due mainly to an organism belonging to what group?
water molds
what protist cannot carry out photosynthesis
amoeba and paramecium
which is not a protozoan? plasmodium, dinoflagellate, euglenoid, archaen, diatoms
archean
a scientific name of an organism is
the same for scientist all over the world
the gritty substance you may feel on your teeth after using tooth paste is actually
diatomaceous earth
the correct taxonomy order
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
what part does brown algae have that land plants do not have
floats
an organism can have
one genus name and one species identifier
Algal blooms are caused by
high nutrient concentrations
The red algae are classified as
Rhodophytes
When tested with a Gram stain, Gram-positive bacteria are stained
purple
bacteria and archae are the only organisms characterized as
prokaryotic
Diatomaceous earth is valuable because it
can be used to produce detergents, paint removers, and toothpaste
holdfasts, gas filled floats, and a thick leathery surface are found in species of what
brown algae
the strongest posion known to humans is produced by
clostridium botulinum
The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus
quercus
The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom
protista
all protists
have a true nucleus
what environment would a slime mold most likely exist
deep in the soil
As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to species level, organisms
are less and less related to each other
"Red tides" and extensive fish kills are caused by population "blooms" of
dinoflagellates
Most water molds are free-living and aquatic, but some live on other organisms and are _
parasitic
the _ appear to be a transitional group between plant and Protista kingdom
the charophytes
all scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the _ language
latin
a fungus like protist, water mold, caused the collapse of the _ and a resulting famine that caused the death of about 2 million irish in 1846
potato
_ devised the two name system of naming organisms
carolus linnaous
the domains of the three domain system of classification are archea, bacteria, and _
eukarya
a genus subdivided into smaller groups
species
Some algae have thin, flattened structures that resemble _ of plants; some have long, filamentous structures that resemble _ of plants; and some have anchoring structures that resemble _ of plants
leaves, stems, roots
the science of naming and classifying organisms
taxonomy
explain how a scientific name is written. write one
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why might the use of common names to describe organisms sometimes cause confusion? give several examples to support your answer
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horses and donkeys can interbreed and produce mules, which cannot produce offspring. is it possible that horses and donkeys belong to the same species?
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explain how humans are affected by red tides if they do not eat dinoflagellates?
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differentiate between colonial and multicellular organization in an organism. give an example of an organism with colonial and an organism with multicellular organization
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describe the process of bioremediation
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describe bioremediation using an example of the process of biological control
living organism control other living organism, ladybugs vs aphids
list 10 benefits of plants and provide an example of each
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explain the concept of nitrogen fixation. discuss the benefits of this, organisms that can do this, and describe a mutualistic relationship involving these organsims
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nitrogen fixation
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia N2 -> NO2 in order to be used

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