An agricultural estate that a lord ran and peasants worked.
Peasants legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord's control.
A payment of 10% of a peasants produce given to the church.
A city of merchants that by the 900's had become a major trading center along the Mediterranean.
An area along the coast of present-day Belgium and northern France, were ideally located for northern European traders.
An economic system based on money rather than bartering.
Merchants or Artisans who settled by a castle along a trade route, they are named after the German word "burg" meaning "a walled enclosure" because if the settlement grew large enough walls would be built around it.
A business association that is associated with a particular trade or craft and played a leading role in the economic life of medieval cities.
Members of the wealthiest and most powerful families.
One who learns a trade by practical experience under skilled craftspeople.
A worker who has learned a trade and works for wages for other masters.
A piece created by a journeyman who aspires to be a master craftsperson; it allowed the members of a guild to judge whether the journeyman was qualified to become a master and join the guild.
Territories in central Italy controlled by the Catholic Church since the fifth century.
Secular or lay rulers usually chose nominees to Church offices and gave them the symbols of their office.
Pope Gregory VII
The pope who decided to fight lay investiture, elected in 1073 he was convinced he had been chosen by God to reform the Church.
The king of Germany who disagreed with the ideas of Pope Gregory VII and came into conflict with him in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Concordat of Worms
An agreement made by a new pope and German king after Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII in 1122 AD.
Pope Innocent III
Pope who strengthened the papacy and the Catholic Church to the height of their political power in the thirteenth century by using interdict and other spiritual weapons.
A spiritual weapon used by Pope Innocent III that forbid priests to give sacraments to a specific group of people.
Christian rites i.e. baptism, matrimony, communion, etc.
People who were a part of the Cistercian monasticism, a stricter form of monasticism than Benedictine monasticism, they ate a simple diet and each only had one robe. They had more time for prayer and manual labor because less time was spent at religious services.
Hildegard of Bingen
A well learned medieval abbess who recorded 27 prophecies and later headed a convent of religious females in western Germany.
A religious order in the thirteenth century founded by Saint Francis of Assisi that pledged to live in absolute poverty and reject all property as well as to live by working and begging for their food.
A religious order in the thirteenth century founded by the Spanish priest Dominic de Guzmán to defend the church from heresy, he believed that a religious order of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectively would be the best to attack heresy.
Saint Francis of Assisi
The saint who founded the Franciscans, he was born into a wealthy Italian merchant family from Assisi.
Dominic de Guzman
A Spanish priest who founded the Dominicans a group who wanted to defend the church teachings from heresy.
The Italian town where Saint Francis of Assisi was born.
The denial of basic Church doctrines.
Also called the "Holy Office," it was a court created by the Church to deal with heretics, it was ran by the dominicans.
Usually the bones of saints or objects connected with saints that were considered worthy of worship because they provided a link between the earthly world and God.
The location of the first European university, it is in Italy.
The location of northern Europe's first university, it is in France.
A university in England created by teachers who left University of Paris.
The study of religion and god.
A philosophical and theological system the tried to reconcile faith and reason. (The concept of combining christian teachings with works of greek philosophers).
An ancient Greek philosopher.
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Made the most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of Christianity in the 1200's.
Written by Thomas Aquinas, it related the opinions of different people on whether or not God exists.
The language of everyday speech in a particular region, such as Spanish, French, English, or German.
Chanson de Geste
A 'heroic epic," a type of vernacular literature.
The most devastating natural disaster in Europe's history.
Wrote the Decameron, an eyewitness account dealing with what he saw happening around him (the plague and how people reacted to it).
Trade fairs were conducted and goods such as cloth, tin, hemp, honey, swords, silk, sugar, spices, etc were traded. It was in fairs like this as well as open markets where the trade was spread.
Pope Boniface VIII
Held the papal office in the 1200's and fought with King Philip IV.
King Philip IV
King of France in the 1200's and had a struggle with Pope Boniface VIII.
The home of pope Clement V in southern France.
From 1378 to 1417 the church divided because there were two popes.
The leader of a group of Czech reformers who wanted an end to corruption in the clergy and excessive papal power.
An English king who achieved victory in the Battle of Agincourt in 1415.
The location of the Battle of Agincourt in 1415.
Joan of Arc
A deeply religious woman who experienced visions and believed that saints had commanded her to free France.
The city which Joan of Arc inspired the French army to seize.
The Hundred Years' War
England vs. France. Resulted from disputes between France and England over who owned French lands.
War of the Roses
A series of civil conflicts in which noble factions fought to control the monarchy until 1485, when Henry Tudor established a new dynasty.
States that had their centralized power reestablished by new European rulers.
Isabella of Castile
Married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 and took a step toward unifying all of Spain.
Ferdinand of Aragon
The man who married Isabella to help unify Spain.
The first Tudor King, he worked to create a strong royal government, ended the wars of the nobles by abolishing their private armies, and won the favor of the middle class and nobles by not overburdening them thus gaining support for the monarchy.
Ruled France from 1461 to 1483, enacted the tallie and gained support from the middle class and lower nobility, he consolidated power and promoted industry and commerce helping to create the foundations of a strong monarchy.
An annual direct tax usually on land or property.
Glencoe World History Chapter 15 & 16 Selective Vocabulary29 terms