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60 terms

US History Midterm Review

US HISTORY MIDTERM REVIEW
STUDY
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The phrase "Manifest Destiny" reflected a belief that
by the will of God, the United States was headed for greatness, with a right to expand across the continent
Anglo-American Settlers in Texas resented the Mexican government because
it took steps trying to end or limit slavery in Texas
In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
the United States paid Mexico $15 million in return for New Mexico, California and agreement on a Texas
The Election of 1848 bought the creation of the
Free Soil Party
The American (or "Know-Nothing") Party was created in 1854
As part of an anti-Catholic immigrant backlash
Facing the political crisis of 1850, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky
Sought to defuse rising secessionist sentiment among southerners and save the union
After Anglo-American rebels declared independence and defeated Santa Anna in 1836
Jackson balked at annexing Texas, due to slavery issues and fear of war with Mexico
Anglo-American rebels were defeated by Santa Anna's Mexican army at
the Alamo
The slogan "54-40 or fight" referred to
expansionists' hope that the United States would claim all of the Oregon Country
In the election of 1844
Democrat James Polk read his narrow victory as a mandate for expansionism (and the annexation of Texas)
The Democratic platform (Polk) for the election of 1844 opposed the annexation of Texas and discouraged Oregon expansionism, positions which swung the presidential election to the Whigs (Clay)
False
The dispute over control of Oregon Country ended after Britain backed down, agreeing to give the United States the entire territory in question
False
Mexican leaders were confident of victory in the war against the United States, though the American army was significantly larger; Mexican forces lost after the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista since they were heavily outnumbered. (Hint: Who had he larger army in this war?)
False
California settlers created a short-lived independent government, after they revolted against the local Mexican authorities and before American forces took control and then annexed California to the United States in August 1846. (Hint: California was once called "the Bear Flag Republic"
True
Prior to his nomination as the Whigs' 1848 presidential candidate, Zachary Taylor had established wide political experience as an outspoke "conscience" critic of slavery
False
While the first gold miners to arrive at rich northern California river deposits could clear hundreds or thousands of dollars' worth of gold in a day, the best sites soon got played out, and within just a couple of years, many miners were barely scraping by.
True
The Fugitive Slave Act allowed slave catchers to enter northern communities and take blacks away in chains; it applied not only to slaves who ran away after the law was passed in 1850, but also to slaves who had run away months or even years before
True
The "fire eaters" who included men like Jefferson Davis, were fiercely opposed to slavery in the west.
False
The Compromise of 1850 offered a clear resolution to the question of slavery in new territories
False
The Fugitive Slave Act passed in 1850 denied runaway slaves the right to a trial by jury and threatened anyone who assisted runaways with a possible six-month jail term.
True
The Second Great Awakening spread cross the country in the 1820s and 1840s. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A rather small percentage of people found salvation when a revival visited their region
Utopian communities spread across America in the 1830s and 1840s. Utopian groups all shared a belief that people
using good principles as well as science and technology could create a perfect society
Many evangelical reformers turned toward abolishing slavery in the 1830s, and William Lloyd Garrison became the leading white abolitionist. Which of the following statements is TRUE? Garrison:
Edited a radical newspaper, The Liberator, and wrote articles for immediate emancipation
In 1848, leaders like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott protested the second class statues of women in society by holding a convention and publishing
Declaration of Sentiments, a document that argued men and women were created equal
From the 1820s to the 1850s, the prosperous market economy allowed many middle and upper class Americans to support progressive reforms, believing
America was a land of opportunity, and one's success should be shared with the less fortunate.
Dorothea Lynde Dix directed her reform efforts at
insane asylums
The founder of the Oneida Community was
John Humphrey Noyes
Which of the following could be associated with the Second Great Awakening
the popularity of camp meetings
Most of the Utopian communities of the early nineteenth century
quickly became failures.
The Oneida Community became notorious for its practice of
Complete sexual freedom
As in America's first Great Awakening, ministers of the Second Great Awakening in the early 1800s warned of a vengeful God who would save only the predestined elect and condemn all remaining to hell.
False
Harassment forced Mormons out of communities in New York, Illinois, and elsewhere; neighbors were suspicious of Mormon polygamy, theology and separatism
True
The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments asserted that all men and women were created equal.
True
The Christianity of the Second Great Awakening was emotionally stern, characterized by formal intellectual sermons, with no music allowed at services
False
Most evangelists leading the Second Great Awakening believed that the United States was the "New Jerusalem," destined to lead the world into millennial glory.
True
Horace Mann was a notable promoter of pubic schools.
True
The woman's rights movement secured the vote for women in several states before 1860
False
Boston was the center of the liberal theology known as Unitarianism
True
Despite the temperance movement, per capita consumption of alcohol almost doubled between 1830 and 1860
True
Margaret Fuller edited The Dial, a Transcendentalist journal
True
Jefferson believed that the key to American political strength and social harmony was
Agricultural life and farm ownership
In the 1803 decision Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court
expanded its power by establishing the principal of judicial review
In 1803, France's Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana to America. As a result, what dilemma did President Jefferson face?
The Constitution did not give the president authority to buy territory from another country
In August 1814, the British army invaded and burned buildings in
Washington, DC
Which of the following is not true about the Louisiana Purchase?
it expanded America all the way to the west coast
As a key goal of his administration, President Jefferson aimed to
Pay off the national debt
Tomas Jefferson's secretary of state was
James Madison
The greatest support for the declaration of war in 1812 came from
The Agricultural regions from Pennsylvania southward and westward
The greatest humiliation to the United States in the War of 1812 occurred when the British
invaded and burned Washington DC
The treaty ending the War of 1812 was negotiated in
Ghent
In the aftermath of the War of 1812
Americans took decisive action against the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the supreme court justice who established the principle of judicial review was
John Marshall
What did Americans like James Madison and Thomas Jefferson believe must remain the foundation of American life?
Agriculture
In May 1804, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark departed with an expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Which of the following statements is FALSE? Lewis and Clark
Except for one five-mile stretch, traveled in long boats west to the Pacific
Under the Treaty of Ghent signed in 1814, Americans and the British
Territorial boundaries remained mostly the same as before the war
The Prophet, younger brother of Shawnee Indian leader Tecumseh, called for Indians to
Reject th eways of whites, including their clothes and liquor, and restore the Indian culture.
After burning the Capitol building and the president's mansion in August 1814, a British army was repulsed at Baltimore and then Fort McHenry. What resulted?
The British failures and American victory on Lake Champlain led to the Treaty of Ghent
The 1807 Chesapeake-Leopard affair
Involved a British ship bombarding and American naval vessel off the coast of Virginia
When he signed the Embargo act in December 1807, President Jefferson figured that
economic coercion of Britain and France would cause both to leave American shipping alone
Jefferson justified is overreach of the constitution when he purchased Louisiana by citing that
he secure economic stability for his virtuous agrarian farmers