dissociate in water
do not dissociate in water
the fluid compartments outside the cell
fluid compartments located within the cell
spaces between the cells
an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space
a condition of unusuallu low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema
A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex
Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid
Special neurons in the hypothalmus that sense the ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland
Sodium ions are highest in
Potassium ions are highest in
Bicarbonate ions are highest in
Proteins are highest in
Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.
The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.
Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the body.
Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalmus.
Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.
It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration.
Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces and urine.
Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusuallu high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema.
While the sodium content of the body may be altered, its condentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.
Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems.
When aldersterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorbtion cannot occur beyond the collecting tube.
Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorbtion of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion.
Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
Aldosterone is secreted in reponse to low extracellular potassium.
Addison's Disease is a disorder resulting from a viral infection
The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them.
Atrial natriuretic peptide hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodialation and potassium and water retention.
Premenstral edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride.
Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal,
Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium ar pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium are the pituitary hormone and calcitionin.
Calcitonin targets thevones andvauses the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low.
The normal pH of blood is 7.4.
Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism.
Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.
the phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma.
The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.
One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.
As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.
Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also plan a small role.
Severe damafe to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid-base imbalances.
Respiratory acidiosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.
Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.
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