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A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex
Special neurons in the hypothalmus that sense the ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland
Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.
It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration.
Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusuallu high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema.
While the sodium content of the body may be altered, its condentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.
When aldersterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorbtion cannot occur beyond the collecting tube.
Atrial natriuretic peptide hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodialation and potassium and water retention.
Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal,
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium ar pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium are the pituitary hormone and calcitionin.
Calcitonin targets thevones andvauses the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low.
Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.
As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.
Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also plan a small role.
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