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55 terms

A&P II chapter 26 - matching

STUDY
PLAY
electrolytes
dissociate in water
nonelectrolytes
do not dissociate in water
extracellular
the fluid compartments outside the cell
intracellular
fluid compartments located within the cell
interstitial
spaces between the cells
hypermagnesemia
magnesium excess
hypocalcemia
calcium depletion
hypernatremia
sodium excess
hyperkalemia
potassium excess
hyponatremia
sodium depletion
edema
an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space
hypoproteinemia
a condition of unusuallu low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema
Addison's Disease
A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex
alderosterone
Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid
osmoreceptors
Special neurons in the hypothalmus that sense the ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland
blood plasma
Sodium ions are highest in
intracellular fluid
Potassium ions are highest in
interstitial fluid
Bicarbonate ions are highest in
intracellular fluid
Proteins are highest in
False
Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.
false
The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.
true
Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the body.
false
Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
true
The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalmus.
true
Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.
false
It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
true
Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration.
true
Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces and urine.
false
Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusuallu high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema.
true
While the sodium content of the body may be altered, its condentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.
true
Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems.
true
When aldersterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorbtion cannot occur beyond the collecting tube.
true
Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorbtion of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion.
true
Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
false
Aldosterone is secreted in reponse to low extracellular potassium.
false
Addison's Disease is a disorder resulting from a viral infection
true
The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them.
false
Atrial natriuretic peptide hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodialation and potassium and water retention.
true
Premenstral edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride.
true
Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal,
false
Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.
false
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium ar pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
false
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium are the pituitary hormone and calcitionin.
false
Calcitonin targets thevones andvauses the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low.
true
The normal pH of blood is 7.4.
true
Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism.
true
Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.
true
the phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma.
true
The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.
true
One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.
true
As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.
false
Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also plan a small role.
false
Severe damafe to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid-base imbalances.
true
Respiratory acidiosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.
true
Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.