Which of the following list of elements or molecules represents the correct rank order from highest to lowest concentration in seawater?
A) SO4, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, K B) Cl, Mg, SO4, Na, Ca, K C) Cl, K, SO4, Mg, Ca, Na D) Na, Cl, Mg, K, Ca, SO4 E) None of the above (ANSWER!)
Water molecules have polar (unequally distributed) charge that leads to many of water's unusual characteristics
Rachel Carson suggested that rain and other factors weather the continents and that rivers deliver dissolved rock (including elements such as Na, Ca and Cl) to the world ocean, which would cause changes in ocean chemistry through time.
When scientists carry out investigations, they typically:
A) Construct one or more hypotheses B) Make observations and collect data C) Test the hypothesis by trying to disprove it D) Evaluate and change hypotheses on the basis of results E) All of the above (ANSWER!)
The "Goldilocks Principle," as applied to the origin of water on Earth suggests that: 1) Earth has just the right position in the solar system -not too close to the Sun and not too far away-- and 2) When it was forming, Earth had just the right mass, large enough to retain water vapor.
Goldilocks and Water on Earth. Recently a team of astronomers announced that:
A) A large body of liquid water is present on the dark side of the moon B) Earth-sized planets are uncommon, even after examining thousands of stars they have only found two Earth-sized worlds. C) They had detected two Earth-sized planets circling very close to a star called Kepler-20 (ANSWER!) D) All of the above
Latent heat is
A) the energy required to change ice to liquid water B) the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius C) the energy released when water vapor condenses to form rain D) the energy required to heat of liquid water from 0 to 100 degrees E) A and C (ANSWER)
Ocean water most likely formed
A) In the past 10,000 years B) From emission (degassing) of materials (volatiles) from Earth's interior (ANSWER!) C) From melting of glaciers and polar ice caps D) A and C E) A and B
The latent heat of fusion (melting) for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice
A) 80 calories B) 540 calories C) 800 calories (ANSWER!) D) 54 calories E) 5400 calories
The ocean is
A) well mixed and has the same temperature at all depths B) stratified into layers, such that shallow water has different properties than deep water.(ANSWER!) C) well mixed and has the same density at all depths D) (A) and (C) E) none of the above
The water cycle involves
A) evaporation. B) precipitation. C) condensation. D) all of the above. (ANSWER!) E) none of the above.
A water molecule may evaporate from the ocean, become part of a cloud and then become a rain drop that becomes part of a river and flows back into the Ocean. The average 'residence' time for a molecule to make this trip is ~ 4,000 years.
The chemistry of ocean water is the same as river water
Which of the following is/are true about residence time for an element in seawater.
A) It can be calculated from the total amount of the element present in coral reefs. B) It can be calculated from the amount in Earth's interior. C) It is given by the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by the input rate. (ANSWER!) D) None of the above.
Seawater chemistry is influenced by rock weathering
More gas can be dissolved in cold seawater than in warm seawater
Residence time of an element in seawater can be calculated from the total amount of the element and the input rate.
The thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline
A) are names of ocean currents B) are names for the region between ocean surface water and deep water (ANSWER!) C) refer to wind patterns D) (B) and (C)
Ocean chemistry is influenced by
A) inputs such as river water and volcanic gases. B) outputs such as evaporates and interaction of seawater with the seafloor. C) rock weathering D) marine life including plants and animals E) all of the above. (ANSWER!)
The density of seawater
A) decreases as it cools from 30 deg C to 5 deg C. B) increases as salinity decreases from 35 to 33 ppt. C) is minimum at 4 deg C, independent of salinity. D) increases as temperature falls and salinity rises. (ANSWER!)
Uneven heating of the Earth's surface results in
A) belts of low and high pressure, which generate a three-dimensional pattern of winds B) winds that include Easterlies, Westerlies, and upper atmosphere winds such as the Jet Stream C) warmer conditions in polar regions than in tropical regions D) a surplus of solar energy received in the tropics relative to high latitudes. E) all but C (ANSWER!)
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere (with the correct latitudes)?
A) Tropic (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°) B) Tropic (0°-30°); Polar (60°-90°); Hadley (30° -60°) C) Hadley (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°) (ANSWER!) D) Polar (0°-30°); Hadley (30°-60°); Ferrel (60°-90°) E) None of the above
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain oxygen for respiration
Which of the following statements is correct about Earth?
A) Incoming energy from the sun is the primary means of heating the tropics. B) Heat transfer from low to high latitudes plays an important role in the pattern of ocean currents and large scale winds C) Ocean currents and winds transfer heat from low to high latitudes D) all of the above (ANSWER!) E) none of the above.
The ocean is stratified (layered) with the densest water below and less dense water above
Latitudes above about 40 degrees N and S receive more solar energy than they lose.