AP Biology Big Idea #2
Terms in this set (77)
the energy dependent transport of a substance across a biological membrane against a concentration gradient, from a region of low concentration to one of high concentration.
the process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, and opens environmental niches.
synthetic reaction in which simple molecules are linked to form more complex ones; requires input of energy and captures it in the chemical bonds that are formed
the asexual production of seeds
reproduction without sex
adenosine triphosphate: an energy storage compound containing adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. When it is formed from ADP, useful energy is stores; when it is broken down (to ADP or AMP) energy is released to drive energonic reactions
an integral membrane protein that couples the transport of protons with the formation of ATP
reproduction of a prokaryote by division of a cell into two comparable progeny cells (mitosis)
asexual reproduction in which a more or less complete new organism grows from the body of the parent organism, eventually detaching itself
the stage of photosynthesis in which CO2 reacts with RuBP to form 3PG, 3PG is reduced to sugar, and RuBP is regenerated, while other products are released to the rest of the plant.
a synthetic reaction in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones and energy is released
formation of ATP in mitochondria and chloroplasts, resulting form a pumping of protons across a membrane, followed by the return of the protons through a protein channel with ATP synthase activity
an organelle bounded by a double membrane containing the enzymes and pigments that perform photosynthesis. chloroplasts occur only in eukaryotes.
any ecologically integrated group of species of microorganisms, plants, and animals inhabiting a given area
a non substrate that binds to the active site of an enzyme and thereby inhibits binding of its substrate
from high to low
an organism that eats tissues of some other organism
phenomenon displayed by enzymes or receptors that have multiple binding sites where the affinity of the binding sites for a ligand is increased or decreased
behavior by which different species select their partners for reproduction
in plants, a waxy layer on the outer body surface that retards water loss
photosynthesis occuring on the thylakoid membrane and using only one photosystem (noncyclic phosphorylation uses 2 photosystems)
the network of microtubules and microfilaments that gives a eukaryotic cell its shape and its capacity to arrange its organelles and to move
random movement of molecules or other particles, resulting in even distribution of the particles when no barriers are present
the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of a new species
the organisms of a particular habitat, such as a pond or forest, together with the physical environment in which they live
a chemical reaction in which the products have a higher free energy than the reactants, thereby requiring free energy input to occur
the tendency for reactions to be linked together: i.e. endergonic and exergonic, anabolic and catabolic, reduction and oxidiation
the total energy of a system
a measure of the degree of disorder in any system. spontaneous reactions in a closed system are always accompanied by an increase in entropy
a chemical reaction in which the products of the reaction have lower free energy than the reactants, resulting in a release of free energy
passive movement through a membrane involving a specific carrier protein; does not proceed against a concentration gradient
a mechanism for regulating a metabolic pathway in which the end product of the pathway can bind to and inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the pathway.
the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy
a membrane protein involved in signal transduction; characterized by binding GDP or GTP
the enzymatic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acids
a system of concentrically folded membranes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; functions in secretion from the cell by exocytosis
the maintenance of a steady state, such as a constant temperature, by means of physiological or behavioral feedback responses
having a greater solute concentration.
having a lesser solute concentration
having the same solute concentration
in cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl coA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. (also citric acid cycle)
a membrane enclosed organelle originating from the Golgi apparatus and containing hydrolytic enzymes
the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism, or some subset of that total
division of a diploid nucleus to produce four haploid daughter cells. the process consists of two successive nuclear divisions with only one cycle of chromosome replication. in meiosis 1, homologues chromosomes separate but retain their chromatids. The second division meiosis 2, is similar to mitosis, in which chromatids actually separate.
an organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, the respiratory chain, and oxidative phosphorylation
nuclear division in eukaryotes leading to the formation of two daughter nuclei, each with a chromosome complement identical to that of the original nucleus
in regulatory systems, information that decreases a regulatory response, returning the system to the set point
net primary productivity
the rate at which energy captured by photosynthesis is incorporated into the bodies of primary producers through growth and reproduction.
in photosynthesis using 2 photosystems on thylakoid membrane
in cells, the centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains the chromosomes.
an aquatic animal that equilibrates the osmolarity of its extracellular fluid to be the same as that of the external environment
an aquatic animal that actively regulates the osmoregularity of its extracellular fluid
movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane, from one region to another region where the water potential is more negative
diffusion across a membrane; may or may not require a channel or carrier protein
temporary change in average environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem
a chemical substance used in communication between organisms of the same species
metabolic processes carries out by green plants and cynobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy is used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.
the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms or their genes
any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and capable of interbreeding with one another
in regulatory systems, information that amplifies a regulatory response, increasing the deviation of the system from the set point
an event in which new environment is devoid of vegetation and usually lacking soil; lava flow, area left from retreated glacier
photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organism that synthesizes complex organic molecules from simple inorganic ones
the development of a complete individual from a fragment of an organism
a small particle in the cell that is the site of protein synthesis. consists of RNA + proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum
the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum whose outer surface has attached ribosomes
the enzyme that combines CO2 or oxygen with RuBP to catalyze the first step of photosynthetic carbon fixation or photorespiration, respectively
succession that occurs after the initial disturbance.
reproduction involving the union of gametes
selection by one sex of characteristics in individuals of the opposite sex. also, the favoring of characteristics in one sex as a result of competition among individuals of that sex for mates
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes and has a tubular appearance
the process of splitting one population into two populations that are reproductively isolated from one another
proteins that assemble on a eukaryotic chromosome, allowing RNA polymerase II to perform transcription
a group of organisms united by obtaining their energy from the same part of the food web of a biological community
asexual reproduction through the modification of stems, leaves, or roots