Beekeeping

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oldest beekeeping records found
15,000 BC
bees established in New England
1654
determined the dimensions of bee space and invented the first removable frame hive
Lorenzo Langstroth in 1851
invented the smoker
Moses Quinby in 1875
Latin name for our Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
What do bees' alarm pheromones smell like?
banana
What's an alternative to smoke?
light sugar water spray
What protective clothing is recommended?
protection of head and face (veil) is minimum
What scientific order are honey bees in? Genus?
Hymenoptera, Apis
What are major body parts of a honey bee?
head, thorax, abdomen, 6 legs, 2 sets of wings, stinger
What are the parts of the head?
mandible, antennae, compound eye, simple eyes
What gland produces royal jelly and invertase?
Hypopharyngeal gland
How long do bee larvae get fed royal jelly?
all larvae are fed royal jelly for 2-5 days, queen larvae get royal jelly for 8-10 days
What gland produces alarm pheromone?
Mandibular gland
What gland dilutes honey and dissolves sugar crystals?
Salivary gland in head
What gland is located on the underside of the abdomen and produces scales of pure wax?
Wax glands
What gland is on the upper side of abdomen and produces the pheromone to help bees orient themselves?
Nasonov gland
What gland is by the stinger?
Venom gland
What species of bee is the most commonly used for honey production and pollination?
Apis mellifera
What sub-species of honey bees is most commonly found in North America?
Apis mellifera ligustica (Italian bees)
What sub-species were introduced to Brazil in 1957 and are known to be very defensive of their hive?
Africanized bees
What is the best orientation for a bee hive?
South-facing, full sun exposure, away from populated areas, avoiding low wet and high windy locations.
What type of paint is used to paint hives? Why paint different colors?
Water-based latex enamel paint. Paint color helps bee identify home and presents a good public image of beekeeping.
What is bee space?
5/16"
Who is the Father of American Beekeeping?
Lorenzo Langstroth
What's good to have in a beekeeping first aid kit?
Benadryl, Epi Pen, Plastic card to remove stinger, ice pack, Tylonol (also keep cell phone and water handy)
What bee types make up a bee caste?
queen, workers, drones
Why is important to keep colony records?
Important to note what you observe and what you may be looking for. Counts of brood, nectar, pollen, and pests.
When is the best time to examine hive?
During suitable weather - not too cold, not raining. Want foragers to be out.
Where is the only place to puff smoke at bees when opening hive?
At the top.
Is it important to place frames back in the same order after examining them?
Yes
Hive Management: What needs to be done in late winter/early spring?
switch brood box and super to encourage bees to fill bottom box, once moved up, they can be switched back
Hive Management: What needs to be done in spring?
Check weekly/every 10 days for swarm prevention/queen cells
Hive Management: What needs to be done in the winter?
Reduce lower entrance to block wind, cold temperatures, and pests. Treat for varroa during broodless period. Tilt hive to allow water to drain. Supplemental feeding with heavy syrup.
What is the best way to avoid wax moths?
Store frames with light and ventilation.
What is the best way to treat small hive beetles?
Do not store frames of honey or reuse infected frames. Beetle traps are effective. Whack a beetle when inspecting hives. If see larvae, you have a problem.
What is the best way to prevent bears?
Electric fencing BEFORE bears discover hives. Avoid known bear paths. Relocate hives after attack.
What is the best way to prevent skunks?
Elevate hive 1 - 1 1/2 feet, trap, nail bed
How do you know you've had skunks?
Scratching, bare spot in front of hive, bee filled scat
What is the best way to prevent mice?
Reduce hive entrance, elevate hive.
What is the best way to prevent raccoons?
Elevate hive, don't leave honey or comb lying around, place something quite heavy on top.
American Foul Brood is what type of disease?
Bacterial
How does AFB spread?
Spore-forming affecting capped larvae
What are the symptoms of AFB?
FOUL odor, sunken brood cells, perforated caps, ropy string of 1" or more
What is the treatment for AFB?
There is no cure. Must kill bees and burn infected hives. Can treat uninfected hives with antibiotics. (Terramyacin)
European Foul Brood is what type of disease?
Bacterial
What are the symptoms of EFB?
Affects brood in larval UNCAPPED state, ropy string of less than 1"
What is the treatment for EFB?
Usually resolves on its own but can requeen if reoccurs.
Sacbrood is what kind of disease?
Viral
What are the symptoms and treatment of Sacbrood?
Affects larval stage after capping. Usually resolves on its own but should requeen if too many cases.
Chalkbrood is what kind of disease?
Fungal
What are the symptoms and causes of chalkbrood?
3-4 day old larvae get too cold and damp which causes them to die and be covered in mycelia - giving them a fluffy, chalky appearance
What is the treatment of chalkbrood?
Resolves on its own, keep hives strong and in dry location. Requeen if reoccurs.
Nosema is what kind of disease?
Fungal (microsporidian)
Which type of Nosema is native to our bees?
Apis Nosema - it is seasonal and resolves on its own.
Which law restricted import of honey bees in the U.S. in 1922?
Honey Bee Act of 1922 - because of tracheal mites
What are indicators of K-wing virus, Black Queen cell, Black/"Hairless" Bee syndrome, chronic paralysis virus?
Tracheal mites
What are indicators of Deformed wing virus, Kashmir virus, parasitic bee virus?
Varroa mites
What is a treatment for tracheal mites?
Crisco grease patty, menthol, formic acid, Apiguard (thymol)
What is IPM
Integrated Pest Management
What is the economic threshold for an IPM?
Above the economic threshold is the economic injury level where bees will die, below the economic threshold, bees can take care of themselves.
How can you determine how big of a varroa mite problem you have?
Powdered sugar shake, Ether roll, Sticky board 30-day mite drop
What are ways to prevent or discourage varroa mites?
Screened bottom boards, hygenic queens, drone brood removal, Queen caging, splits
What are primary products of bee hive?
honey, beeswax, pollen - less common are: propolis, brood, queens, bee venom, royal jelly
When is main nectar flow in S.C.?
Typically - late May. Possible 2nd nectar flow in October.
When to harvest?
Harvest when frames are 80% capped. Less than that may result in honey with moisture content above 18.6%.
How much honey to leave behind?
Leave enough capped honey for bees to consume through mid-summer dearth until October. Approx. 60 lbs.
What is most commonly marketed form of honey in U.S.?
Liquid honey (as opposed to comb or creamed honey)
Can you feed honey to infants less than 1 year old?
No. There is a risk of botulism.
What is the maximum moisture content of capped honey?
18.6%
How must honey be labeled?
Weight must be in ounces and grams - by weight, not volume.
Do you introduce a new queen to a package of bees or hive right away?
No, keep her in her cage and allow bees to get used to her pheromones while eating away at the candy plug separating them.
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